Russia in the 17th century, weakened by internal social crisis and the Polish-Swedish intervention, was forced to live with their territorial losses: Yayi, Koporye, Ivangorod and Smolensk, Chernigov land ceded to its neighbors - Sweden and the Commonwealth.In the south of the country plagued the Crimean Tatars ...
the same time to solve these three problems the country was not in a position, as it is their priority determined based on the international situation and their resources.
In the thirties of the 17th century after the death of Sigismund has developed very favorable conditions to return Smolensk.Zemsky Sobor upheld the decision of the government, and in 1632 began the Smolensk War, the purpose of which was the return of land seized from her during the Troubles.
adoption of such a lightning decision was stimulated by the fact that the powerful European countries were involved in the Thirty Years' War, and they were not up to the situation in Eastern Europe.
to forty thousand Russian ratification before which was quite a major task, Smolensk War began in 1632 in rather difficult conditions: the southern counties preys Crimeans, and therefore the government, fearing the arrival of numerous troops of the Crimean feudal lords, until August delayed the exit of troops from Moscow.
hike passed very slowly, so the troops were near Smolensk in December, taking the road Serpeysk, White, Roslavl, Nevel, Starodub.
swoop to take Smolensk city Shein - commander of Russian troops - failed, and the siege lasted for eight long months.The fortress was in full force even shortly before the war began Smolensk, so the invaders had to retreat as much as two times, even after the approach of siege artillery.
And in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at this time significant changes have occurred: the throne instead of his father went Vladislav, who began vigorously to maintain a garrison of a besieged fortress.
Smolensk War, during which it demoralized invasion in 1633 in the Russian Crimean Tatars, radically changed its course.Many nobles fled from the army to save their families and estates, and "outlaws", consisting of peasants, serfs and townspeople acted in partisan, attacking not only the enemy, but to all the surrounding estate.
The city arrived and Vladislav, who managed to cut off the army from the rear Shein.The Russian troops, who stood in front of 15 thousand well-trained regular soldiers and 12 thousand Zaporozhye Cossacks, started to panic.They felt an acute shortage of fodder and food.
At the same time some of the troops of Vladislav moved to the east, just in the course of freeing Dorogobuzh, and then in retaliation began the massacre of the villages of the Great Bow, Mozhaisk, Kozelsk, Kaluga, etc.
March 1 Shein capitulated, and in fact Smolensk war ended.It began negotiation phase, which was completed in June of the same year Polyanovsky signing the contract on which the Poles regained all the settlements that Russian captured in the initial stage of the war, including Smolensk unbowed.Vladislav, in turn, formally renounced any claim to the Russian throne, which is one of the key conditions of peace.
Smolensk War, briefly described by historians as an unfortunate, deprived Russia of the possibility of war with its southern neighbor in 1937, when Don Cossacks managed to capture the Turkish Azov.Moscow did not dare to help, remembering the sad experience of the last war, and the Cossacks had no choice but to leave the fortress.
Zemsky Sobor declared Governor M. Shein culprit lesion in the Smolensk War and was at Boyarsky court verdict was beheaded.