The dissident movement: Causes and Consequences

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In the 60 years of the last century, forgotten a couple of centuries ago, the word "dissident" again came into use.So began calling people who spoke with the open and public criticism of the Soviet government.How and why there was the dissident movement, which sought to achieve and their representatives?

How it all began

Let's start with the history of the term.He appeared in the era of the Reformation - then in the Commonwealth came to be called dissidents (in Latin - "dissenters") people who do not belong to the dominant Catholic Church.Hardly anyone was thinking that the term be reborn with a different meaning in another country.

After the death of Stalin in the history of the Soviet Union, a period known as the Khrushchev thaw.In public life, really "warmer": there were youth creative association, writers and poets began to touch in his works banned by the artists become more free in its creative search.Chilling fear of reprisals is not paralyzed people, and more often from the intelligentsia voices criticizing the policy of "the party and government."These dissenters authorities do not want to hear, but they all declared themselves loudly - letters, articles, books, protests.Since the beginning of the Soviet dissident movement to emerge.

Conditionally it can be divided into three areas: the national liberation, human rights and religious.The first was typical of the national republics (the Baltic states, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, etc.).Its representatives were opposed to the oppression of national languages, the free use of them on a par with Russian, and in the future - for the extension of the rights of the Union Republics or their secession from the Union.The human rights area was spread out in different republics, most typical it is for Russia.Its representatives were fighting for freedom of expression and against human rights abuses.Those who represented the dissident movement in the field of religion, tried to defend the rights of believers fought against the closure of churches.

forms of struggle

Despite the fact that the term "dissidents" unite representatives of the most diverse currents, they do have one thing in common.Those who represented the dissident movement in the Soviet Union, was elected peaceful forms of protest.It could be a treatment in government and international organizations on human rights violations, rallies over any political events (such as the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968).But the most popular form of protest was the so-called samizdat - publication of leaflets, articles, illegal periodicals, books, and telling criticism of the authorities on the situation in the country.These include the all-Union publication "Chronicle of Current Events" (1968-1983 gg.), "Ukrainian Herald" (published Ukrainian dissidents in 1970-1972.).As for books or articles, their number is difficult to even count.

dissident movement often do not have a clear organizational forms.It could be underground groups, clubs, associations, but often just dissidents in contact with each other without forming any organization.The dissident movement in Ukraine was represented by such figures as Viacheslav Chornovil, Levko Lukyanenko, Ivan Dziuba, Russia - Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Andrei Sakharov, Vladimir Bukovsky, among the Crimean Tatars, Mustafa Dzhemilev was known.

In the late 60's dissidents are beginning to seek to legalize their activities.The first public organization openly declared himself considered initiative group of human rights in the Soviet Union, created in May 1968, it consisted of 15 people.In 1975, the Soviet Union signed and published the Final Act of the Helsinki Accords, one of the points which was the observance of human rights.This event spurred dissidents to create a new type of social organizations - groups to facilitate the implementation of the Helsinki Accords.The first such group was established in May 1976 in Moscow, after her any similar organizations in Ukraine, Armenia, Lithuania and Georgia.Members of the groups involved in the publication of information on human rights violations in the Soviet Union, have reported cases of violation of the Helsinki Accords in the Soviet authorities and international organizations.

power struggle with dissidents

the protests of dissidents authorities responded by various forms of repression.Most were soft dismissal from work and the informal ban on the profession, which is why yesterday's intellectuals often have to work as porters or stokers.For example, there were those who signed the various letters with protests in 60 years.For more action - protests, creation of underground organizations - were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and exile.It has developed such a direction as a punitive reprisals medicine when dissidents admitted mentally ill and sent for compulsory treatment.With respect to the members of the Helsinki Group used and fabrication of criminal cases in order to discredit them in the eyes of the international community.

By the mid 80s the dissident movement was virtually destroyed.Most of its most active members were in the camps or in exile, many simply moved away from the activity.Yet the existence of dissidents has not been in vain.Their works have become Soviet citizens an alternative source of information in many ways prepared the collapse of the totalitarian regime.In an era of restructuring their social experience proved useful in creating new, fully legal organizations, made it possible to organize the struggle for the republics of the Union and the formation of independent states.