Medieval culture

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In the Middle Ages there is the special influence of the Christian Church on the formation of mentality and outlook of Europeans.Instead, lean and hard life of religion offers people a system of knowledge about the world and the laws in force in it.That is why medieval culture entirely permeated with Christian ideas and ideals that are considered earthly life as a preparatory stage for the upcoming immortality, but in another dimension.People identified with the peculiar world of the arena where the opposing forces of heaven and hell, good and evil.

Medieval culture reflects the history of the struggle of church and state, their interaction and the implementation of divine purpose.

Architecture

in 10-12 centuries in Western European countries dominated by the Romanesque style, which is considered the first canon of medieval architecture.

Secular structure is massive, they are characterized by narrow window openings and tall towers.Typical features of the Romanesque style of architecture - design dome and semicircular arches.Bulky construction symbolized the power of the Christian God.

Particular attention was paid in this period the monastic buildings, as they combined dwelling monks, a chapel, a room for prayer, workshops and a library.The main element of the composition - high tower.Massive reliefs decorating the facade walls and portals, is a key element of temple decoration.

Medieval culture is characterized by the emergence of another style of architecture.He is known as Gothic.This style shifts the cultural center of the secluded monasteries in crowded urban neighborhoods.This structure is considered to be the main spiritual cathedral.The first church buildings of the Gothic style are different slender columns, taking up, elongated windows, stained glass windows and painted "rose" above the entrance.Inside and outside are decorated with reliefs, statues, paintings, underlining the main features of the style - striving upwards.

Sculpture

Medieval culture of Western Europe is characterized by the integration of sculptures in the overall architecture of the church.They served only aesthetic and structural purposes.Small size sculpture created mainly of bronze, gold, and bone on the model of the Byzantine models.Large-scale sculpture made of stone appeared in Europe only in the 12th century.

Many temples stone figures were placed on the facades and statues - the columns.A distinctive feature of the sculpture in the Romanesque style is that it does not portray the phenomena of nature and the human body.

Literature

Church writings telling about the lives of the saints - that is what stands out the culture of medieval Europe.By the early 10th century in this area has formed the canon of the genre: the invincible spirit of the hero and set his virtues.Most popular is the "Golden Legend" Ya Voraginskogo - a collection of descriptions of the life of the Catholic saints.

musical medieval culture

In its basis - singing hymns to God liturgical singing.Initially, this trend was used in the melodies, and then in the hymns, where the poetic text is connected to the song melody.

Gregorian chant - sample canonized music.It includes chants used for the services mentioned in the church calendar.

arts and PDI

actively developing miniature book, bone carving, molding, artistic weaving, embossing.All kinds of art plays an important role ornament, made up of motifs of flora and fauna, or geometric pattern.

Metal is used primarily for the production of church utensils.