The unusual phenomenon of nature - Permafrost

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Inland waters are not only the accumulation of liquid, solid and moisture.Hard water forms a mountain, the cover and underground glaciation.The underground ice accumulation was named permafrost 1955, Shvetsov - Soviet permafrost.This area has a common name - the permafrost.

Permafrost is the top layer of the cortex.The rocks at this level are different low temperatures.In this layer included permafrost, rock and frost-highly mineralized groundwater horizons.

If prolonged severe winter with relatively low power cover there is a substantial loss of heat from the rocks.In this regard, freezing takes place to a considerable depth.As a result of water formed a solid mass.During the summer, permafrost does not have time to thaw completely.The soil retains a negative temperature, thus at a considerable depth, and for hundreds and even thousands of years.Permafrost and Russia formed under the additional influence of huge reserves of cold.They accumulate in areas with low average temperature.

Long time at low temperatures are rocks in some way, "cemented" with moisture.Permafrost includes underground ice accumulation of moisture forming wedges, lenses, veins, bands of ice.Permafrost may contain different amounts of ice.The indicator "iciness" can range from 1.3 to 90%.As a rule, there is ice in the mountain areas.This permafrost on the plains has high ice content.

Permafrost is a unique phenomenon.Permafrost interested explorers in the 17th century.In the early 18th century on the phenomenon mentioned in his works Tatishchev, and the first study conducted in the mid-19th century Middendorf.Last temperature measurements carried out bed in several areas, set in the northern parts of its power and speculated about the origin and factors sufficiently widespread permafrost zone.Since the second half of the 19th-early 20th century began to carry out serious research with survey works mining engineers and geologists.

in Russian permafrost extended to an area of ‚Äč‚Äčabout eleven million square kilometers.It is about sixty-five percent of the entire territory of the state.

Permafrost is limited to the south of Kola Peninsula.From its central part, it stretches across the East European plain not far from the Arctic Circle.Then, in the Urals is a deviation to the south almost to sixty degrees north latitude.Along Obi permafrost extends to the mouth of the Northern Sosva, then passes through the Siberian ridges (southern slopes) to the Yenisei in the Stony Tunguska.At this point the boundary turns quite sharply to the south, it runs along the Yenisei River, followed by the slopes of the Altai, Tuva, the Western Sayan to the border with Kazakhstan.