Russia in the 19th century has undergone territorial changes.Formed land, largely at the expense of Central Asia, the Caucasus, North Caucasus.Russia in the 19th century was a very populous country.After a hundred years, the number of population in the country has tripled.Political Russia in the 19th century experienced the era of reform and reactions.
Gentleman, is 0.5% of the total population, the tendency of large estates, with some noblemen tried to run the economy in a new way.
Russia in the 19th century led by the food trade fairs, which are the main form of market.So then there were well-known Irbit, Novgorod, chicken Fair.The few shops almost all belonged to foreigners.Peddlers were retail trade.
In the 19th century the country began construction of railways (1837).The basic means of communication and, therefore, trade remained waterways - river.The decisive role was played by the internal market.
main trade partner of the state in this period was England.
Industrial countries hardly developed.This is evidenced by the structure of state exports.According to some authors, the historiography of the Soviet period, has formed a stereotype that the beginning of the industrial revolution in Russia took place in the thirties of the 19th century.This situation is due mainly to Marxist dogma about the development of Russian capitalism in sync with the West.The industrial revolution is a mechanization of manual labor (to replace machinery), the transition to factory production of the manufactory.The main classes would proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
However, some historians believe that in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution could not have arisen.The most numerous class at that time was the peasantry.
Russia in the second half of the 19th century completes the formation of the internal market.Since the state began to enter into world trade.Along with Britain, foreign trade partner of Russia was Germany.Then, trade and economic relations with Japan began to set.In 1875, it signed a new (after the Treaty of Shimoda) Russian-Japanese agreement on the recognition of the Kurile Islands of Japan, and Sakhalin Island of Russia.However, tensions between the two countries still remained.
Russian reforms have contributed significantly to the establishment in the country of the Western way of life.Thus, society is increasingly becoming the way of social and economic progress.However, due to the fact that the government tried by all means to prevent the weakening of their position, the pace of development in the country were lower than had been possible.
changes in political and economic life of the country during the second half of the 19th century contributed to the creation of conditions for the cultural development of the population.Capitalist modernization provoked scientific and technical progress, increasing the need for highly educated personnel.
During this period, the Russian intelligentsia was formed - a new, independent social stratum.Intellectuals sought spirituality and serving the public good.
Russia in the late 19th century going through the formation of a kind of art-historical period.This period was called the "silver age" of Russian culture.
At the turn of centuries of social and economic development of the country took place on the background of the desire of the autocracy to maintain its international position.By creating a powerful military potential, the government has pursued a policy that was aimed at speeding up the industrialization of the country.