Writing ancient Egypt was based on hieroglyphs.These complex characters often represented a simplified and stylized image of an object or a living being.Writing ancient Egypt - evidence of ancient times - in the new time detected on the columns, the remains of papyrus columns, statues and tombs.This occurred at a time when European researchers engaged in the study of this mysterious oriental country.
name "hieroglyphics" belongs to the Greeks.They invaded in 332 BCIn ancient land under the leadership of Alexander the Great.From the Greek word "character" refers to the translation of "the sacred carved."
According to researchers, the Egyptian writing is the most beautiful on earth.Best no one nation could not be created.But in the 5th century AD, hieroglyphic writing of ancient Egypt has been forgotten and for many thousands of years, four characters were a mystery even for the locals.It is not only in this country but anywhere in the world, no one could understand it.Decipher the writing of ancient Egypt tried in the 16-17 centuries.This problem has since tried to solve many scientists.
With the fading of civilization was lost, and the key to understanding the ancient hieroglyphic writing.The last ancient hieroglyphs were carved in 394 AD on the island.Fillet of the temple of Isis.The most famous text was the late Demotic inscription 452 AD.
huge period of history (about three and a half millennia) is embodied in the texts.Of course, throughout this period, the language of ancient Egypt changed.Researchers divide its development into five stages:
- Old Egyptian language used during the Old Kingdom (28-23 c. BC. E.);
- from 22 to 16 cc.BC.It uses the classic (sredneegipetsky) language;
- for 16 -13 centuries.BC.e.- Novoegipetsky language;
- demotic language Egyptians used with 8 in.BC.e.5 century of our era .;
- 3 in.n.e began to be used the Coptic language.
After the invasion of Arabs the Coptic language in the 7th century AD, is gradually beginning to replace the Arabic language.
Writing Egypt is considered, along with the Sumerian writings, the oldest in the world.It should be noted that it is the same as the culture of this ancient country, formed quite independently.Number of hieroglyphic signs, the most common - somewhere around seven hundred.Individual elements of the letter could be inscribed in different ways.This is largely dependent on time and in part on the ability of the scribe.This feature, first of all, the researchers referred to as hieratic (cursive) writing.
characters themselves are classified by their appearance.Classification Gardiner (British Egyptologist) is considered to be accepted.
people in ancient Egypt used three writing systems:
- and demotic.
hieroglyphic system the earliest, provided pictures and icons.It was used for the compilation of religious texts.
hieratic system is a simplified cursive form of hieroglyphic system.It was used in the preparation of business and legal texts.
Another type of system has become shorthand Demotic.
Understand writing the Egyptian people failed to scientists for over 2000 years.In Rosetta, near Alexandria in 1799 it was discovered by a small basalt stone.It was inscribed with a decree of Pharaoh Ptolemy the Fifth.The recording was made in three systems: hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek.Stone, named Rosetta, has become one of the most important discoveries for scientists, Egyptologists, because it contained the key to understanding the ancient letter.Unravel the mystery of hieroglyphics in 1822 succeeded the Frenchman Zh.F.Shampolonu.