Management - is the science of management of the enterprise.This is one of the youngest sciences, which was finally formed in the late twentieth century, although the history of the emergence of management is replete with examples of organizations that existed in ancient times and surviving, and even thriving in our days.As an example of such a linear structure can lead the Catholic Church in Rome, where there is a clear dominance hierarchy.
History of management is closely linked not only with the industrial revolution, but also the ideas of managerial political economist William Petty, Adam Smith, David Ricardo and a utopian socialist Robert Owen, who noticed, evaluate and determine the major role of the human factor in production.
But the most important moment in the history of management development is undergoing at the beginning of the twentieth century and extends to the present day total of 8 stages.
- Initiated management as a science F. Taylor, wrote his "Principles of Scientific Management," which demonstrated the importance of systems analysis in business management for its success.Next
- doctrine was picked up Taylor's assumptions and refined A. Fayolle, P. Urwick, D. Mooney and P. Sloan.Because of their history of activity was marked by a new management theory, clearly sets out its functions and principles.
- third stage - the "neoclassical", when there is a validation of the sociological concept of group decision-making.There is joined to the above scientists E. Mayo - founder of the school of "human relations".
- two decades, covering 1940-1960 years of the twentieth century, the management thought steadily evolving and improving management theory, adding a touch of achievements of psychology and sociology.
- history of management at this stage marks the transition of management thought to use advances in information technology, which is now reaching its peak.D. McGregor presents and justifies his theory of direct effect relationship manager to subordinates on their performance.
- Stage 1970 - 1980 marked the twentieth century theories I. Ansoff, H. Salancik and Porter, who uncovered the meaning of a variety of methods and management techniques, as well as establishing relationships between internal environment and the external environment.
- the seventh stage of the history of management development was marked by revolutionary discoveries in Japan and other developed countries in a variety of organizational structures, which are very important management techniques.
- and final stage, which began in the 90s of the twentieth century, continues to this day.The main trend of management - the creation of an organizational culture, democratization of management, workers' participation in management.
history of management in Russia begins in the early twentieth century, and also occurs in stages.
- I.Semenovym foundation was laid, and A. Paikin, have drawn up a series of lectures on the organization of music on plants.
- In 1920 laws MUSIC finalized by scientists of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute and the Moscow Higher Technical School.
- 1935 brought to the management theory of organizational law amounts authored by OAYermansky.
- In 1950 F.R.Dunaevsky proved that a manager can guide a certain number of workers.
- end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the XXI century - the period of transition of the Russian management to various methods of optimization of administrative activity.
Today's history of management in Russia is connected with the total computerization, as well as humanization and democratization of management.