The functions of the medulla oblongata and other parts of the hindbrain

Traditionally exams in anatomy for non-medical universities on the question about the hindbrain comply with the maximum number of errors.Why is this happening?The fact that this title are units of different levels.In one case, the hindbrain called rhombencephalon in the second - a little education, which is actually the name of the hindbrain (including bridge and the cerebellum).Tangle formation of the first to the second is impossible, because the second part of the first.

hindbrain - the most ancient formations, it is found even in reptiles.In humans, it performs a simple function than in reptiles because the complex functions take on a new education - secondary and forebrain.However, when you read about the hindbrain, do not get tired to be surprised how close all kind to each other and make sure that all of life is based, in principle, the same pattern, only the more advanced types of individual elements more complicated.

hindbrain functions in a broad sense (we remember that in this case the "back" - a synonym for "diamond-shaped") are very diverse, they include the function of the medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum.Logical place to start the discussion with the story of the medulla oblongata, because this part is directly connected to the spinal cord and is unusually old.

Thus, the functions of the medulla oblongata can generally be divided into two classes.Firstly, its structure conduct impulses from the "slave" and medulla oblongata from the above, a more authoritative centers.However, there is a second class of functions - the actual function of the medulla oblongata, it has its problems which centers hindbrain is not closely monitored.This department - responsible "artist" who once again did not bother "chief," and he is dealing with "tekuchkoj."What are the functions of the medulla oblongata relatively autonomous?

Firstly, there are receptors of carbon dioxide in the blood, it makes us not to breathe oxygen deficiency and excess carbon dioxide.Therefore, if a man forces himself to breathe deeply for some time, carbon dioxide takes longer than usual, and respiration is inhibited.Then one feels oxygen deficiency.Think about your feelings when a doctor asked to breathe deeply - very many then dizzy because of the fact that it took too much carbon dioxide, and the breath is not stimulated.Oblong brain is engaged in the control of inhalation and exhalation, but it also has a small "Head" - a bridge that sets the rhythm of breathing.

Second, the function of the medulla oblongata include control of the heart.In the center of the impulses come from both types of autonomous systems.Sympathetic part responsible for the mobilization of the reaction in extreme situations, and the parasympathetic - for relaxation and recovery.It is clear that both of them are controlled by the heart, speeding up or slowing down the rhythm.A medulla helps coordinate their activities.However, "from above" to his team can come from the emotional centers of the brain - the subcortical structures, and then the heart rate quickens noticeably.

Third, there is vasomotor center, which deals with pressure.This part is actively cooperating with other parts of the brain such as the hypothalamus, but in normal situations, the medulla oblongata to cope on their own.

Fourth, the medulla oblongata is committed to what we usually are not aware of.Innate reflexes, ie, coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing.

return to other parts of the hindbrain and talk about the fact hindbrain.His part - bridge - makes a transition from inspiration to expiration and vice versa.There are also centers of several pairs of cranial nerves.The functions of the cerebellum - coordination and motor memory (along with the higher centers).

As we can see, the brain performs the vital diamond-shaped brain function that is necessary for the survival of every second.Therefore, the brain is so vulnerable if damaged these areas.