Discoveries in molecular physics.

click fraud protection

Here I present the idea, claiming the discovery.Anyway, nowhere have I seen even a hint of it.The idea is a phenomenon of evaporation, namely, it opens up an entirely new factor as the main causes of the cooling liquid during evaporation.The classic explanation is: the fluid ejected from only the fastest molecules, those that are able to overcome the forces of intermolecular attraction.This reduces the average speed of the remaining molecules.Consequently, it reduced body temperature, which is dependent on the speed.

But if you look a little closer to the process of evaporation, the visible one, more important, if not the main, factor of cooling.This phenomenon (factor) is not written in any textbook on physics.From the classical theory should be the logical conclusion that the evaporating molecules does not reduce to almost zero and the speed of its speed vytolknuvshey its molecules.But this is not true.

in the surface layers of liquid molecules are arranged at greater distances than in the deeper layers.This causes a phenomenon of surface tension.

surface liquid

molecule 1 V1


molecule 2


molecule 3


most likely to evaporate, ejecting molecule 1 (see. Fig. 1) is its collision with the molecule 2, which lies along a molecule 1 on the perpendicular to the liquid surface and has a minimum tangential velocity component.After the collision at a distance greater than the radii of the two molecules are replaced by the mutual repulsion of the growing forces of mutual attraction.These forces are reduced to almost zero speed and temperature in Kelvin emitted not only one molecule, that molecule and 2, which has remained in the liquid.2 molecule does not have time to transfer their kinetic energy to a neighboring molecule 3: it "stops" evaporating molecules 1. probable cases of simultaneous attraction molecule 1 molecule of steam.In this case, one molecule may have a high speed.However, in the final phase of the output 1 molecule, 2 molecules reduce its speed and the absolute temperature Kelvin to almost zero.And probably even beats the neighboring molecule 2 molecules side, reduces the effect of slowing down, "saving" the kinetic energy of the molecules 2. But overall effect is almost complete inhibition to be significant because of the distance between the molecules in the surface layers of the liquid are large enough.The fact that the forces of mutual attraction comparable to the inertial forces of evaporating molecules, said the phenomenon of surface tension, through which the bulk of the molecules of the surface layer of the liquid is kept inside until equiprobable for all molecules stronger ejector collision with a molecule 2. Consequently, evaporating molecules reduces 1its speed and the speed of the molecules 2 to almost zero.

phenomenon of evaporation must take into account in all the sciences, studying the material world.The above explanation of the new cooling liquid during its evaporation should provide useful clarification in all calculations, which must take into account this effect.

I refute his idea of ​​the classical theory of evaporation, namely:

1. «The speed of the evaporated liquid molecules above the average."For over 15 years, I refer your idea in different scientific organizations-without a response.With the same success, he wrote Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev with a request to forward it for analysis to the competent scientific organizations.From this I concluded, there is nothing to refute, but confirm - the risk for a career scientist.April 28 this year, I met my idea of ​​the candidate of technical sciences, a specialist in molecular physics.On my first question, "What is the speed of the evaporated molecules?", He replied: "It is very high, higher than the average."After meeting with my idea, it lowered this rate, "Yes, perhaps, some of the molecules slow down.But a lot of liquid molecules, respectively, so many opportunities to disperse the evaporating molecules to a high speed. "I objected to this: "In order to accelerate to a speed higher than the average evaporated molecules" 1 "should be evaporating molecules" 1 "to disperse up to speed, higher than the average, more than twice.This event, if possible, but so it is unlikely that they should be ignored.Molecules - "Millionaire" for the kinetic energy must be very rare. "Like a pyramid scheme, the energy that the chain of causes and effects of the depth of the liquid comes to the acceleration of the evaporating molecules "1" - can be represented in the form of a cone with the apex of the molecules in the molecule "1".The deeper layer of molecules, the scattering probability of the hypothetical energy.The most probable event - a molecule with an average speed.Molecules with speed, a little more or a little less than average - is also not uncommon.The rate of the evaporating molecules, significantly higher than the average, should theoretically be caused by a complex scheme of previous clashes in the deep layers.However, since the depth of all the molecules in equal conditions and in all destinations transmission power equally, then the probability of setting a plurality of molecules to one direction and one molecule of "1" - also low, the probability of spontaneously get arbitrarily uninsulated portion of the volume of liquid different from the other portionstemperature.The most likely event is the speed of the evaporating molecules, slightly more than the average (or equal to, if in the final phase evaporation molecule "1" when at the turn she was going to come back: the velocity is zero - it attracts the molecules of steam or air. Such an event is highly likely in thewhile the wind, but is less likely and possible stagnant atmosphere).

2. Logically, the surface tension holds all molecules having medium and lower speeds within the liquid (except hoods or air vapor molecules flying parallel to the surface of the liquid).Then it is necessary to conclude that the most likely event is the evaporation of molecules having a speed exceeding the minimum average.That is the difference of the kinetic energy of the molecule "1" and the potential energy of the attraction of its neighboring molekulami- minimal.This means that after overcoming this potential energy, the speed - and absolute temperature Kelvin - emitted from molecules "1" will be near zero."And where does the kinetic energy of the ejected molecules"?This question asked me a specialist in molecular physics.I said (thought about it before) - apparently goes into the excitation energy of the atoms, the shorter, is not perceived by the person as temperature;It can be partially emitted in the short-nonthermal electromagnetic spectrum.

3. 2.Speed ​​remaining in the liquid molecules "2" after a volatile molecule "1" collision remains the same, as follows from the classical theory, and reduced almost to zero.

4. According to the scheme of my opponent (he took it from a textbook), "The surface layers adhere very closely to each other.A large distance between the molecules in each layer. "It is suggested to refute my assertion that the molecule "2" in Fig."1" does not have time to transfer their energy to the underlying.But from simple energy sustainability considerations should be the position of the layers in the "staggered": that is, by (and "over") each molecule of 2, 3, 4, 5 layers must be a "hole".From Fig.1 energetically more probable position of the molecules is "2" and "3" - through a layer of molecules.Molecule "2" lies in the third layer, the molecule "3" - in the fifth layer, and molecule "1" - the first layer.In this case the molecule is "2" after ejecting, evaporating molecules "1" impact - flies through the space between the molecules nearest the bottom of the fourth layer to the next, the fifth, the layer of molecules - and her lack of distance to reduce almost to zero velocity and temperature.Evaporating molecules "1".slowing down to almost zero itself, time to slow down to almost zero molecule "2".This - highly probable event.

5. In science, theory and experience go "hand in hand".I do not doubt that, "Gibbs free energy", which is estimated gap of atomic and molecular bonds - accurately reflects the real phenomena.But if I was able to convince his idea of ​​a specialist in molecular physics (he slowed down after our debate, although not up to scratch, but significantly lower than the average) - means, in theory, the cooling liquid has evaporated weaknesses and gaps.Apparently, this is due to the fact that the forces of molecular interaction - short- and acceleration and deceleration - short.They neglect using to calculate the average speed of the molecules.This is true for the molecules within the liquid.But this approach has led to errors in the study of the behavior of volatile molecules.

6. My idea of ​​eliminating this gap.Perhaps a deeper understanding of the causes of evaporating cooling liquid will open a new field for inventors of more efficient refrigerators, air conditioners and portable.m. n.

7. Release early books came more strictly.There was an official version, and everything in it is consistent with the opinion of official science.

8. Here is a tutorial 1976, Grade 9, 68 pp .: "If the temperature is constant, the transformation from liquid to vapor does not lead to an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules, but accompanied by an increase of the potential energy.Because the average distance between the gas molecules is many times greater than that between the liquid molecules.In addition, the increase in volume during the transition from liquid to gaseous state,


10. requires doing work against the forces of external pressure.Here is the exact direction of the settlement: "The amount of heat required to turn at a constant temperature of 1 kg.liquid into steam, referred to as specific heat of vaporization. "Apparently, in the absence of external heat sources on the magnitude of the incident energy (and - temperature) for each kilogram of liquid evaporation.

11. But nowhere Set my - not rare, but highly probable option: the molecule has evaporated, its speed and the speed of the liquid remaining in the molecule is almost reset to zero, the potential energy of their interaction disappeared.Where the energy had gone?This question my interlocutor not only and not so much his as - all unexamined my probable point of view of physics.The excitation energy of the atom, in the electromagnetic radiation does not pass?The handbook on physics, in which I was preparing to enter the Polytechnic Institute (graduated in 1983), painted the same scheme and given the same explanation that recently gave me an expert.But in my school textbook gives a detailed explanation of the scheme and a few other: p. 84. From this description it appears that the forces of interaction with molecules of steam can be ignored, since the density under normal conditions is many times less than the density of the liquid."On 1 molecule on the surface of the liquid a force of repulsion on the part of the molecule 2, and the attractive force by the molecules lying in the depths of 3,4,5, ITd. On 2 molecule force of attraction on the part of the molecules lying in the depths of 4, 5, 6, and.t. e., and the repulsive force from the molecule 3. But, in addition, even the repulsive force acting on the part of the molecule 1. As a result, the distance between the molecules of 1 U2 on average greater than the distance between the molecules 2 and 3 (a molecule 1, 2, 34, 5,. t. d. - lie at a perpendicular to the surface of the liquid, and the numbering - as in Fig. 1 - increasing depth).Distance 2 - 3 over a distance of 3 and -4.t. d. until until no affect affinity molecule to the surface. "This convincing detailed proof turned out that the distance between the top 1 molecule "layer" and molecule 2 under it - Fig.1 -more likely.This is more than enough to inhibit the molecule 2 in Fig.1 - to zero.404118 Volzhsky, 30 m - he dom40 kV.17.