Organic matter - are those compounds which are composed of atoms carbon.Even in the early stages of the development of chemistry, all substances were divided into two groups: mineral and organic.In those times it was thought that in order to synthesize organic matter need to have unprecedented "vitality", which belongs to the living biosystem.Therefore the synthesis of organic compounds from the mineral impossible.It was only in the early 19th century F. Weller refuted existing opinion and synthesized urea from ammonium cyanate, that is, he received organic matter from the mineral.After that, a number of scientists have been synthesized chloroform, aniline, acetate acid and a variety of other chemical compounds.
Organic substances are the basis of existence of living matter, and is a staple food for humans and animals.Most organic compounds are the raw material for different industries - food, chemical, light industry, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Today there are more than 30 million. A variety of organic compounds.Therefore, the organic matter
Organic compounds characterized by the presence of covalent C-C bonds, and covalent bonds with the polar-N, C-O, C-Hal, C-metal, etc.The reactions taking place involving organic substances have some features in comparison with the mineral.In the reactions of inorganic compounds usually involved ions.Often, these reactions are very fast, sometimes instantly at the optimum temperature.In reactions with organic substances generally involves molecules.It must be said that in this case some covalent bonds are broken, and the other are thus formed.Generally these reactions proceed much more slowly, and for their acceleration is necessary to increase the temperature or use a catalyst (acid or base).
as a way of organic substances in nature?Most of the organic compounds naturally synthesized by photosynthesis of carbon dioxide and water in the green chlorophyll of plants.
classes of organic compounds.
Classification of organic compounds is based on the theory of O. Butlerova.The systematic classification is the foundation of scientific nomenclature that makes it possible to call the organic matter on the basis of existing structural formula.The classification is based on two main features - the structure of the carbon skeleton, the number and placement of the functional groups in the molecule.
Carbon skeleton - is stable in various chemical reactions of the organic molecules.Depending on its structure, all organic substances are separated into groups.
to acyclic compounds include substances with a straight or branched chain.By carbocyclic compounds include substances with cycles are divided into two groups - alicyclic and aromatic.Heterocyclic compounds - substances based molecules which loops are formed by atoms of carbon and other atoms of the chemical elements (with oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur), hetero.
also organic compounds are classified according to the presence of functional groups that are part of the molecules.For example, the classes of hydrocarbons (exception - in their molecules have functional groups), phenols, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, amines, esters, carboxylic acids, etc.It should be remembered that each functional group (COOH, OH, NH2, SH, NH, NO) determines the physicochemical properties of this compound.