Warp - this displacement or violation of the bonds between atoms.It appears if for side impact forces: the temperature, the pressure, a particular load, magnetic or electric field.The main types of deformation - reversible and irreversible.Reversible deformation in physics called the elastic deformation means that a violation of the bonds between atoms and small structure for integrity is not compromised.Having such a property is called elastic objects.Irreversible deformation in physics is called plastic deformation and is a serious violation of atoms and bonds as a result, the integrity of the structure.Objects with such properties are called plastic.
Violation of atomic bonding - it's not always a bad thing.For example, the damping (extinguishing fluctuations) items must have flexibility.It is necessary to convert the impact energy into deformation energy.The following types of deformation of solids: bending, stretching / compression, torsion and shear.Depending on the nature of the forces acting on solids, there may be stress related.These stresses are called the nature of power.For example, the torsional stress, compressive stress, bending stress, etc.Speaking of deformation often default involve deformation of solids, aschanging the structure of their most pronounced.
In fact, all sorts of strain - is the result of the influence of the voltage generated by the active force.In its pure form is rare strain.Typically, the total deformation - this is the result of various stress.In the end, they all lead to the two main strains - tension / compression and bending.
deformities - the result of which is expressed in quantitative and qualitative terms.Quantitatively, this phenomenon is expressed as a numerical value.Qualitatively - the nature of existence (the direction of the critical moments, such as the destruction of, the ultimate stress ...).Possible deformation previously calculated in strength calculations when designing any device or mechanism.
As a rule, the result of stress and strain are displayed in graphs - stress diagram.The structure of such a graph: the design scheme to applied loads, types of stresses and strain types.Load distribution provides an understanding of the nature of loading of the device or element deformation.The results of the strain - tension, compression, bending, twisting - measured in units of distance measurement (mm, cm, m) or angular measure (degrees and radians).The main objective of the calculation - to determine the strain and stress limit to avoid malfunction - fracture shear fracture and so on.Equally important is the nature of stress and a numeric value, asThere is the concept of fatigue deformation.
fatigue strain - is the process of changing the shape due to many loads.They with time non-critical voltage (DC minor violations of the interatomic bonds) develop into serious consequences.This concept is called the accumulated fatigue and regulated in such a parameter (of the physical properties of the material) as the fatigue strength.
In order to take into account the impact that various kinds of strain on the functionality and resources, conduct field tests of material samples.From the experience of getting all the strength characteristics for each material, which are then tabulated values.In the era of computer technology, such an analysis is carried out on high-end PC.Still, the material properties can be found only in full-scale tests.Already laying all the characteristics and properties in the calculation model, prochnist gets a graphical model (sometimes in the dynamics of operation) of all the stress and strain.
In engineering, this calculation has already been included in the program for 3D-design.Iethe designer performs a 3D-model of all the elements, each of which is reduced to a model node.Applying a load in a separate program module, the designer has dimensional picture of the nature of all types of stresses and strains.