Any shipbuilder, which plans to provide cargo or passenger flows, must know how to create the court.The device ships - is a science that allows you to anticipate and properly assess the behavior of the ship during its operation in any, even the most difficult situations.
The vessel is a floating complex engineering structure that solves a number of problems - from the national economy to the public and special.Each floating equipment consists of a large number of mechanisms and components, instruments and apparatus, integrity and stability of the work which creates and ships.The device ships difficult and subject to the laws of physics, and is based on modern advanced knowledge and innovative achievements.Modern ships are presented in a huge variety, depending on the characteristics of their design and basic characteristics.Court are self-propelled and non-self, floating over the water, on water and under water, with different types of housing.
Depending on the area of navigation of the ship fall into the sea, inland navigation (ie, river and lake), and mixed type, that is, those that make transportation between sea and river ports.Depending on the type of motor, which results in the movement of the ship, isolated ships, boats and dizelehody.Engines in the courts can be screw with wing propeller, paddle wheels, the ship may move the sails or oars.
What are the civil court?
device ships are engaged in civil transportation, thought out in such a way as to ensure the normal operation of the assets, depending on their destination.The most popular commercial ships - a transport and fishing.Transportation floating craft designed for the carriage of passengers or goods, or both at the same time and are divided into liners and Trump.Fishing presented a greater number of species - fishing, whaling, factory ships, fish cannery trawlers and so on.
basic operational properties
Every ship has specific technical properties.They are dependent on such factors as the ability to transport and economy, which show trial.The device ships depend on such parameters:
- load capacity: this parameter characterizes the goods which can carry a vessel without changing the design of landing;Net carrying capacity referred to the total weight of the payload, which carries the means and the deadweight - is the total weight of all cargo, including the amounts of fuel, boiler water, baggage and crew, ie the sum of all goods on board;
- displacement: the sum of all constant weight, which affects the overall weight of the entire vessel;
- cargo: is the amount of cargo space on the floating means;
- grain tonnage: is the theoretical amount of cargo space, which is not considered the amount of housing and other internal structures;
- finishing capacity: this indicator marked a conditional amount of space ship, carrying cargo and passengers;
- travel speed: this figure depends on the economic efficiency of the vessel and its carrying capacity;
- cruising range: that is, the distance that the ship can go at a certain speed without the need to replenish stocks;
- maneuverability: this parameter is indicated by the vessel's ability to perform certain maneuvers in the first place to change the direction and speed;
- an autonomy: an indicator of operating time of the vessel without replenishment of fuel, water, food stocks;
- vitality, that is, the ability of the vessel to complete the contingency safe swimming.
Stability - an important indicator
theory of ship construction involves attention to the stability of each of the floating equipment.Under this option, refers to conditions under which the movement of the ship in the upright position and straightening after inclinations.An important role is played by the correct loading of each vessel because of its reliability and efficiency.The vessel may change its balance under the influence of wind and waves, the stability depends on the position in which is metacentre to the center of gravity.Metacenter true - it is the point at which two adjacent cross direction buoyancy.The moment of impact on the stability of the rectification of the court as long as the center of gravity does not lie above the metacentre true.If metacenter below, the vessel will not retain the balance.
How does the ship?
general device ships in the most general terms as follows.The main element is a body consisting of the cladding - it is the basis for the bottom and sides.Top deck housing is closed, wherein there may be several, depending on the type of vessel.The upper deck has a length from side to side and from bow to stern it - it arranged premises for different purposes.If the deck is long - from side to side, then it is called a superstructure if it occupies only a part of the ship - a cabin.Some vessels on the upper deck can build up even a short deck - it may be the boat, walking the deck.Deck still higher have special meanings, for example, radio room or the central control post.
used for plating steel sheets of different thickness, thus it relies on an internal skeleton, which is called the set of the ship.It includes the design of the transverse bulkheads, stringers, longitudinal beams, beams supporting deck.The decks can be cut hatches and recesses that must be durable - this trim of the steel sheets and square.
bottom of most modern ships, double, with internal flooring.This clever design safety-related funds.In double bottoms may be stored fuel oil, fresh water, ballast water, which aligns the ship and sinking deeper into the water.Inside the housing is divided into sections of transverse bulkheads, which is achieved due to the transverse strength and unsinkable ship.
includes a number of vital elements of the device vessel.The diagram shows that the vehicle has the engine, propeller and rudder.Thruster - a device that affects the conversion of mechanical energy in the engine power of the vessel.Rudder is needed to control the ship, while in the modern version, it was transformed.Consider the features of some systems more ships.
Features form the hull
theory devices ship comes from what load it fall.The hull is under the influence of hydrostatic pressure forces that grow with increasing depth.Due to the pressure of seawater on the vessel are transverse load and load funds from its own volume and buoyancy.As a consequence, the shape of the body depends on the type of vessel and its purpose, as well as the tonnage required volume of holds, number of decks, speed and lateral stability.Furthermore, the shape of the housing depends on the purpose of floating transport means and its operating characteristics.
Shipbuilding - a laborious process, which plays the role of every detail.Modern body shapes differ significantly from those that were originally.First and foremost changes were used materials and technologies.If initially floating structures created out of wood, then gradually it was replaced by a metal steel.The important role played by small weight while maintaining structural strength.Use for connecting elements welding possible to considerably reduce the number of structural elements and make them lighter and stronger at the same time.
Modern floating funds are part of mild steel and cast steel, light alloys and plastics.And the plastic is widely used not only for the production of parts, but also in the creation of small vessels, such as fishing or sports, or lifeboats.
outer skin is the outer shell hulls, which accounts for the water pressure.It depends on the strength of her body.Siding - this individual sheets connected to one another by welding.The thickness of this layer varies and depends on the length of the ship, the height of its side walls, as well as from rainfall, and the distance between two frames - ribs housings which depend on the particular form of the vessel.Apparatus marine vessel such that the same vessel can have a different thickness in different sections of casing.More stress tests amidships, so there is the thickness of the sheet is greater than in the extremities.Hold-down kit is amplified at the bow and stern of the vessel, due to the influence of pitching.
deck and underdeck
Deck - an important element of any vessel.External device ships from a constructive point of view is the same, where the deck - extending it horizontally in the housing overlap.Uppermost continuous deck is considered the main - it forms a common envelope courts.All decks, located below the main, we need to increase the usable area of the vessel.Decks furnished above are called add-ons.The flooring of the main deck can be of different thickness - it depends on the length of the ship and the height of its board.
Features steering gear
vessel's steering gear fulfills the main aim - to counter external forces, that is, the wind flow, which can lead to a deviation from the course of vessels.In ancient times was used instead of the rudder oars at the stern oar, then they changed the pivot steering, which is placed on the main deck.Today there are several types of steering wheels - from the ordinary and balancer to the bow thruster.Wheels are also active and passive: the last allowed to turn the ship during the movement of the water against the hull of the vessel.Active steering wheel allows you to rotate as a moving and worthwhile ship.
Passive vessel's steering gear includes a yoke with the transmission, steering the machine, rudder.The old ships remained single layer controls, and today used mainly curly profile rudders.Active steering fulfills its function even if the ship is without movement, that is at anchor.Active steering is widely used in the equipment of factory ships, whaling ships and repair.
To improve maneuverability, often used thruster vessel.They are mounted on the bow or the stern of the craft across the tunnel, which is also located two propellers.This aid is necessary to operate the vessel at extremely low speed.The steering gear is selected depending on the purpose for which the ship is used: one group rudders affect the preservation of the stability of the course, the other helps to provide a good turning.
Anchor - an important element
Anchor vessel is necessary in order to keep the lay vessel in position when required to withstand such external factors as wind, waves, currents.Vessels anchored in the roads or in anticipation of the entrance to the harbor, as well as in emergency situations.Modern armature represented in a wide variety and divided into groups.For example, stock-Rod anchor anchor, anchor and anchor Trotman Hall equip sporting boats or sailing training facilities.
Anchor devices courts operate as follows: when giving an anchor falls to the bottom, then there is its towing vessel.Anchor motion clings "feet" for the bottom.To pick it up, use the anchor chain: it raises anchor to the bottom surface, taking it from the ground.The length of anchor chain is dependent on wind pressure, shock waves, and should take care of all these external forces.Anchor often located at the bow of the vessel, which is placed and the windlass, which runs on an electric or hydraulic drive.
number of important details
mooring device courts need to ensure that the ship could stand in the dock during the stay in port.Mooring is done by mooring lines - they are drawn from the ship to the shore diagonally.Today, these items are made from durable plastic.When approaching ships to the beach with them thrown mooring ropes.
general device vessel presented and numerous ship systems in the form of ballast and drainage systems, heating and air conditioning.Each of them plays a role: the draining promotes retraction of collecting on the bottom of the water overboard ballast needed for drainage and fill tank with sea water and other systems depends on the safety and comfort of operation of each vessel.