software-based personal computer - operating system, which is a set of service and system software components that provide human-computer interaction and execution of other programs.On the one hand it is closely linked with the basic computer software, included in the BIOS, but she acts as a support for the programs of a higher level - applied, as well as most of the applications.For PC prerequisite acts presence of the operating system on the hard drive.When the device is read from the hard disk and stored in the RAM, this process is called loading.Due to the fact that there is now a wide variety of systems aimed at solving specific and common objectives, it is natural that there is a classification of operating systems.Let's give it in summary form.
Classification of operating systems depends on the specific implementation of the control algorithms use and computer resources.Depending on the processor control algorithm can be subdivided on single-tasking operating systems and multi-tasking, multi-processor and single-processor, single-user and multi-user, network and local.
Classification of operating systems on the number of simultaneous tasks: single-tasking and multitasking.Means single-tasking systems use file management, management of peripheral devices, as well as means of relationship with users.For multi-tasking system characterized by the use of the same tools as for single-task, but they also manage the division of resources shared: RAM, processor, peripherals and files.
types of operating systems for use multitasking areas: data processing systems in batch, real-time systems with time-sharing.The main purpose of batch processing is to solve problems that do not require fast results.Their main purpose is to solve the largest number of tasks per unit time or the maximum capacity.Such systems allow to achieve high performance in dealing with large volumes of tasks, but they reduce the efficiency of the user mode of interactivity.Time-sharing systems emit a small time span for each task, so no problem for a long time does not take the processor.At the minimum selected time could create the appearance of simultaneous execution of a number of problems.With decreasing capacity, such systems allow a user to work very effectively in an interactive mode.Real-time systems used for the management of technical object or technological process.
Classification of operating systems on the number of concurrent users: multi- and single-player.In multiplayer, each user has the ability to configure an interface for the system, that is, they have the ability to create custom labels, personalized color scheme and so on.In such systems, there are data protection against access by other users.
presence in the multi-processing tools is an essential feature of such tools are presented in Net Ware, OS / 2, Widows NT.
Since we are accustomed to use the system of Windows, then you can worry about is its classification.Thus, the main operating system Windows, which we used for ordinary users, it is Windows 95, 98, NT, XP, Seven.