Russian computer industry is able to deliver solutions that can be quite competitive in relation to the products of leading brands.So, in a segment of microprocessors - one of the most technologically advanced and characterized by a very high threshold of entry - a domestic company MCST ready as an alternative to chips from Intel and AMD offer processors Russian market.Computer "Elbrus" in any of the modifications, which are presented in a wide range, - an example of the functional system on the basis of such chips.At the same time this type Soup may be running "Elbrus", which also created MCST.What is the specific hardware and software solutions developed by Russian brand?
Computer History "Elbrus»
Before examining the specifics of the operating system "Elbrus" and the appropriate type of processor, examine the key moments in the history of the domestic computer brand.The first computer, initiating the process line "Elbrus", appeared in the 70s.They are engaged in the development of the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering.In the 80s and 90s the possibility of computing systems improved.Since Soviet times, the key consumer systems "Elbrus" - MIC.Processors meet the most stringent criteria, which is understandable due to the defense of their use.It is known, for example, that the complexes "Elbrus" involved in the structure of the defense system of the A-135.
In 1991, work was completed on the complex "Elbrus-3."Due to economic difficulties, after "perestroika" make the necessary adjustment of the complex failed.In 1992, the developers of computer line "Elbrus" MCST created a company and started working on the implementation of a special microprocessor architecture.They managed to successfully solve the problem.Established architecture brought together in computer energy efficiency and performance.
Compatible with algorithms from Intel and AMD
also solved the problem of the compatibility of processors "Elbrus" algorithms chip architecture x86, which work on the basis of solutions from Intel and AMD.
With this feature, the modern domestic-based computers "Elbrus" can operate under various operating systems, including some versions of Windows.
based chips "Elbrus" created several computing modules.Consider their specificity.Under the module in the company understood MCST board, which is equipped with the necessary interfaces.In principle, it is ready computer, which only need to be connected to the power supply and equip the required type of disk drives.The computer system on a chip "Elbrus" is built in the following modules:
- MVKUB / C;
- module "Monokub";
- IAC / U;
- module MV3S / C-K.
module MVKUB / C - two processors "Elbrus", in other single-chip set.The system type MV3S / C to the presence of an additional module of flash memory designed for binary translation.
Actually, each represented in the list of devices have a built-in flash drive on which to install the operating system - that is, strictly speaking, the computer will function even without connecting hard drives.
Another category of devices created on the basis of processors "Elbrus" - computing systems.These include ready-made computers, which the company MCST has also developed a wide range.Consider the basic decision by Russian brand.
In the line laptop computer complexes there, whose name sounds like "Wearable Terminal HT Elbrus-S».
It is slightly larger in size than the corresponding type computers, common in modern stores, but this is due to their high degree of security.Features of the complex allows it to run basic office applications.
interesting model - "Monokub-PC», which can be categorized as desktop.It has 4 GB of RAM and hard drive capacity of 500 GB - it is the market average.They also can always be increased.To this complex computing can connect any monitor that supports interfaces VGA or DVI.
Bar Bar "KM4-Elbrus" is a general purpose computer, it is somewhat similar in configuration to the known solutions from Apple.The device is interesting in that its screen - touch, and has a decent resolution - 1600 by 900 pixels.Monoblock "KM4-Elbrus" can also be used with another monitor.
complex "Elbrus-3C" - a powerful server.It is equipped with 16 processors.It has 128 GB of RAM.This system uses the solid type wheels, as well as the optical type network controller.Construction of the complex "Elbrus-3C" - modular.Through this it can be configured according to the specific requirements.
especially proud of the Russian computer industry - new 4-core microprocessor "Elbrus-4C."Consider its main features.It belongs to the category of 64-bit.Each of its cores clocked at 800 MHz and can interact with 3-channel RAM type DDR3-1600.Possible to combine up to four processors in a system with a common set of memory modules.Processor manufactured in accordance with the technology of 65 nm.The power consumption of the chip - about 45 watts.
total processor cores while the involvement of all - about 50 gigaflops at single precision, or 25 gigaflops - at the double.Chip "Elbrus-4C" is compatible with binary code translation world's leading manufacturers of processors - Intel and AMD.With regard to the comparison of the speed of the processor and the Russian solutions from Intel and AMD, as much depends on the particular mode chips.Certainly, in terms of the nominal frequency of the processor "Elbrus" inferior chips from leading manufacturers.And because he is believed to experts, it can not be fully optimized for the launch of popular computer games.But it works for other algorithms, the intended benefits of its engagement in the performance of different types of operations.
Processor "Elbrus 8C»
Among the newest solutions from MCST - processor "Elbrus 8C."It has 8 cores.Based on the chip 28 nm process - at the level of the world's leading development.The processor has a 4 MB cache second level, 16 MB - the third.The chip is compatible with the type of memory modules DDR3-1600.The performance of the latest processor from MCST - 250 gigaflops.This figure exceeds the figures shows that the chip Intel Core i7 types of 4930K.His speed - about 130-140 gigaflops.It is known that the latest processor from MCST create a separate type of motherboard.
On computers manufactured by MCST, operating system "Elbrus".Consider the specifics of the Russian operating in more detail.
OS "Elbrus": general information
operating system "Elbrus" is based on the Linux kernel version 2.6.33, but there is evidence that the planned modernization of the corresponding component of the operating system to version 3.10.
main distribution for the Russian OS - Debian, has established itself as a reliable server solution.Operating system "Elbrus" includes about 4 thousand. Different software packages.The distribution includes a wide range of tools for the operation of servers, as well as solving problems relevant to the user.Thus, in the structure of the operating system "Elbrus" present:
- a graphical interface;
- programs for word processing;
- multimedia players;
- mail clients;
- database management system;
- Web server.
It may be noted that the software, which is expected to use in the operating system "Elbrus", being certified.
structure "OS Elbrus»
operating system "Elbrus" is built at the same time using public algorithms global developer of open source, as well as the development tools created by the specialists of MCST.Among the components of the second type - compiler capable of working with multiple computer languages.OS "Elbrus", like other common user operating system, can provide multi-tasking operation of the PC.
specially designed for this operating system concept of management software processes, interrupts, synchronization, and so on. D. In order to optimize the Linux kernel under the task of computing complexes "Elbrus" was changed standard library is responsible for the flow computation - libpthread.Instead, the OS developers to create a library elpthread.
the operating system "Elbrus" also includes the following useful modules:
- command line, which allows the user to work with computing systems using text commands and interact with an appropriate manner the various applications;
- tools for complex backup files in order to increase the convenience of their transmission or storage;
- a set of development tools: compilers, linkers, debuggers, assemblers, editors, translators, various libraries, tools, documentation, and so on. D.
Among the key OS libraries - Glibe, which is also used on other operating systems, created onbased on Linux.
These are the general information about the operating system MVK "Elbrus".It may be noted that Dunn OS is largely designed for use by military establishments, therefore in the public domain, like other distributions of Linux, it is hard to find.
Interesting facts about the development of the MCST
operating system "Elbrus" and the domestic processor type 4C - including the company's flagship MCST.However, a Russian developer, of course, is not limited to the issue and support for appropriate solutions.Consider what today's software and hardware products come brand.
known that ZAO "MCST" develops two basic lines of microprocessors - VLIW type architecture and SPARC.As for the first architecture, the base at its series processors available MCST-R, and MCST-4R.Chips "Elbrus" refer to those that are based on the architecture of VLIW.However, a series of computer "Elbrus" can be equipped with both types of processors.
Total Russian developer has created three major operating systems.Firstly, it is the operating system type OSL_3M1, optimized for complex "Elbrus-3M1."Secondly, it OSL_90, which was created for the complex "Elbrus-90 micro."Third, it OS_E90, which is based on the Solaris operating system version 2.5.1.The first two operating systems are often combined under the single name - OS "Elbrus".It is also known that developed a special version of the operating system under the latest processor type 8C, which we have said above.
interesting fact is that the name of the processor, ready-made solutions and operating systems developed by MCST, almost identical system localization "Elbrus", popular in 2000 among users of computers based on EPOC.This operating system, according to some sources, was the prototype Symbian.Possibilities of localization "Elbrus" appealed to many enthusiasts of the appropriate type of devices.However, the data that would indicate the continuity of the two brands, available to the general public have been received.
Prospects of using OS "Elbrus»
key customers MCST development today - is, as we noted at the outset, the MIC.Therefore, hardware and software solutions by Russian brand is likely a matter of priority will be procured military structures.Considered the development of MCST can contribute to the process of import substitution in a number of IT-segments.This may be true for systems requiring a high level of security.
In this aspect, computing modules developed MCST, have a distinctive feature: the key ingredients that go into their structure, possess the necessary documentation, if necessary, pass inspection by the competent structures.It is expected that computers based on the chip "Elbrus" series 4C and 8C will be in demand not only in the military field, but also among civilian users.