"Party" - the concept of multi-valued.If you ask, "What is the shipment?", The answer is one.And if we consider the political parties, there are very different concepts and definitions.What a lot of products, we do not consider this topic.We are interested in the concept associated with the policy.Let us consider it in detail.
term "party" politics
special place among the subjects of this kind of activity, both political parties occupy.They act as intermediaries between the state and citizens.The answer to the question, what is the party, which has become the classic definition, proposed by Roger Gérard Schwartzenberg (born in 1943) was a French political analyst.According to him, the political party - constantly acting organization, which exists both at the local and national levels.It is aimed at sending and receiving power, committed to the broad support of the masses for this purpose.
continue our answer to the question, what party.Let us consider their symptoms.The party joined the most active representatives of various social groups that are similar to their ideological and political views and seek somehow to the government.
can distinguish the following symptoms Party:
- the long-term functioning, organization, availability of the rules of inner life and formal norms, reflected in the charter;
- the presence of the primary organizations (local branches), which support the national leadership of the regular communication;
- focus on the conquest of power and the disposition of (pressure groups called those who do not have this objective);
- voluntary membership, the availability of support from the people;
- the presence of a common strategy, goals and ideology, in the corresponding political agenda.
party functions they perform in today's society a number of specific internal and external functions.It is also necessary to mention, when asked what the party.We select those and other functions, dwell on them.
internal concern the provision of funding, recruit new members, establishing between the local offices and the management of effective interaction, and so on. D.
External functions - for determining the activity of the party.This protection, advocacy and expression of the interests of large social strata and groups, the integration of the people within them, based on common objectives and mobilize the masses to solve important current social issues.They also include the formation of public opinion, the development of ideology, political culture dissemination, training of personnel for the various existing political institutions, participation in the creation of the elite, as well as opportunities for socialization of the individual in politics.In addition, the external functions - participation in election campaigns, their organization and the fight for control as well as for state power.
There are several typologies, which are divided into political parties.
So, isolated on ideological orientations such as communist, conservative, liberal party.
"What is the federal party?"- You ask.It is isolated on the following, a territorial basis.According to it, the party are regional, federal, and others.That is the sign indicates the territory in which they exist.
On the basis of social - entrepreneurial, peasants, workers, and so on.
In relation to the changes in society - reactionary and progressive, reformist and revolutionary, moderate and radical.
to participate in the government - the parliamentary and non-parliamentary, legal and illegal, the ruling and opposition.
However, the best known is the classification of the organizational structure, on which stand out the massive and personnel parties.
"What the party cadre?"- You ask.They focused on the participation of parliamentarians, politicians and professionals united around a political committee - a group of leaders.They are usually few and elitist, financed from private sources.It stimulates the activity of such parties during elections.
contrast, mass parties are numerous, they are financed from membership fees.This centralized organization with a statutory membership other than discipline and organization, conducting field wide advocacy as interested in the fact that their numbers are growing (and, consequently, increasing the amount of contributions).Mass parties seek to mobilize the masses, and the staff - elites.
can also divide them on the "right" and "left."What is the "right" party?They are opposed to radical reforms, to preserve the existing regime."Left" - for the change of his enthronement of social equality, carrying out large-scale reforms.These include social-democratic, anarchist, socialist and communist parties, as well as other political doctrines.
We examined theoretically, what are the types and what party."United Russia" refers to the "right" or "left"?Try to answer the question.What is the Communist Party, we are about to present, and without definition.
pressure groups, public organizations, mass movements also belong to the group subject such activities as political.
In the past few decades, there are also so-called universal party (in other words - the party of all voters).In the strictest sense, they are not.In contrast to the traditional parties who are guided in their activities in the electoral group, these associations tend to attract different groups of voters to their side.Characteristic of their features are the following: a special type of playing the role of a leader of an ideological character-intellectual, an optional fixing of membership in the association, as well as the absence of any clearly defined social interests.The main function of universal parties - the protection of existing policy rather than aggregation and articulation of the public interest.Therefore, they are more connected with the state than with the people.
Asked what political party, you must also define the concept of the party.Party - a non-profit voluntary association of social and political principles ideological reasons, seeking to achieve certain political goals and to apply for this political means.
It includes, as already noted, the most active members of society, it is their class or political union, expressing their immediate interests, consisting of the most active representatives, aware of these interests, fighting for possession of power or retaining it, and the implementation of common goals.
In the tradition of Marxism, the party regarded as the highest form of class organization that covers the most active part reflecting political interests and pursuing their activities in the long-term goals.As a political party organization to express the attitude of the authorities involved in social and political activities are created in the name of strengthening and maintaining power or change it.
In another tradition, the liberal-democratic, they are treated as a certain political force, organized, bringing together representatives of a single political tradition and employees to participate in the government or its conquest in order to implement the objectives pursued by the adherents of the party.They embody the individual's right to political association with others, Intra-Group reflect some goals and interests of diverse sectors of society (religious, national, social, etc.).People across the institution to push the government and the requirements of their group obtained from it at the same time seeking support in order to solve some of the political issues.
elements that are mandatory for any political party
In order to better understand what a political party, select items that are mandatory for any of them.Any party - is a carrier of some ideology, or at least she expresses a certain orientation vision of man and the world.This association, for a relatively long lifetime, that is, an organization with a specific territorial dimension (local, regional, national and sometimes an international) and structure.The goal of any party - the conquest of power and participation with others in it.
each party wants to ensure public support for themselves - from inclusion in the ranks of its members to create a wide range of individual sympathizers.
Signs and role of political parties
Among the main features are: an organizational structure, membership fees, the presence of statutes and programs, the organizational relationship between the parties, party discipline, participation in shaping the governmental and parliamentary institutions, the creation of public opinion.
its role in the life of society: it is the link between the government and the masses, the head of public class struggle, social and political control of public life.
main task of the Party - part dominated by grabbing her.
functions of political parties
- analysis of the state, as well as the theoretical evaluation of the various prospects of social development;
- identifying the interests of different social groups;
- development of tactics and strategy of struggle for the renewal of society.
- advocacy and dissemination among the masses of their moral values and outlook;
- promotion of their policies and objectives;
- involvement of the population in the ranks of the party and to the side.
- a struggle for power;
- the selection of candidates for elective office, nomination of personnel for local and central government, the government;
- conducting various election campaigns.