Even in the 17th century was fairly widespread the crime of forgery of seals.Since then, this "art" has advanced considerably, new technology and a large number of different tools to help cunning criminals in their dark deeds.
necessary to mention that the term "forgery of seals" is meant also to restore them.This is done using the finished ink print on the paper.To do this requires the services of a specialist.Thus all perfectly legitimate: it is only necessary to submit a document proving that the old seal is lost or fallen into disrepair (this is mainly due to the disintegration of the ink).
structure of crime
1) The object of this type of offense are the public relations related to the manufacture, as well as the use and sale of various kinds of documents.
2) The subject is just the thing to which the copy was made for criminal purposes.This may be a forgery printing, certificates, stamps, forms, state.award or other official document.
3) The actus reus is any action of counterfeit items.They are criminal in nature.By this action include:
- directly manufacturing and counterfeiting;
- personal use;
- sales to third parties.
4) The subjective aspect of the offense is the direct intent.
5) A person who has reached the age of 16, may be the subject of a crime.They, however, may be not only physical but also legal entity.
As today may be a fake seals?The program (or even one), which will help anyone in this difficult matter, can be easily found on the Internet.However, it should be remembered that as a result of the commission of such misconduct can occur criminal liability.According to article 327 of the Criminal Code shall be punished with fake stamps in different ways, depending on the severity of the crime.We also note that this article includes an explanation of the creation of copies of the forms, awards, stamps.
1) Forgery of seals, as well as any other documents (non-official) that provide any special rights or relieve the person from some duties, is punishable by law.The same applies to their sales.What is this responsibility?This can be:
- arrest for 2-4 months;
- restriction of liberty for up to 3 years;
- imprisonment, which generally does not exceed 2 years.
2) if the acts described above are repeated or have repeated character, you can get to the imprisonment for up to 4 years already.
3) A fine in the amount of 100-200 minimum wage shall be imposed on the person who used the documents that are obviously false character.Instead of punishment, however, can be used, and others, such as:
- work binding, the length of which will amount to 180-240 hours;
- corrective work up to 2 years;
- arrest, which will last three to six months.
Always remember about the responsibility that comes as a result of misconduct.After a fake printing - one of them.