The forest complex includes: logging, forestry, chemical and mechanical wood processing.Raw materials for these industries use the same.The difference lies in the technology of production and designation of products.In terms of the finished product takes place leading timber-chemical, pulp and paper industry.According to the number of existing enterprises is leading wood industry.
Russian forest industry is of great importance in the economy.This is due to several factors:
- huge reserves of raw materials;
- spatial distribution of forest resources;
- wide application in different sectors (transport, construction, industry, urban and rural economies).
In our country, concentrated one-quarter of global timber resources.Therefore, a timber industry complex of Russia - the largest in the world.Species of trees dominated by the following:
- conifers: pine, fir, spruce, larch, cedar;
- deciduous beech, maple, ash, oak, birch, linden, aspen.
Russian forest industry is based on three groups of forests.These include:
- reserved, field, recreational forest.In these areas it is carried out only "wellness" cutting of trees, which improves the health status of forest plantations;
- forests, which may be selective cutting based on the amount of the annual increase;
- operating area of the forest.They felling of trees may occur constantly.
during the market reforms in the economy occurred in the forest industry crisis.Scientific and technical and industrial potential have been significantly undermined.Due to a change there has been a decline in production, lack of use of the cutting area.Significantly reduce the amount of investment.As a result, wood processing enterprises (90% of the total) went to private hands.
in the structure of industrial production to the number of products forestry Russia ranked seventh, while the volume of exports - the fifth largest in the world.A large part of the forest complex is given to farms of the European North.The country's exports of forest products complex occupies a leading position.Exportation shall be plywood, lumber, pulp.Such materials have a price lower than the world average, since they are inferior in quality, handling, its presentation and packaging of products of developed countries.
Forestry is engaged in preparation, export and alloy wood primary processing and processing (partially) of forest materials.Its main product is a "business-like" timber.Its volume is 80% of the total volume of exported products.Logging - a basic branch of the timber industry.
Resource availability of raw materials determines the placement of logging.Because of this factor, the leading region of the workpiece "business" wood became the European North.It provides one-third of all production industry.In second place was the East Siberia.In third place was strengthened Urals.In addition to these areas, logging manufactured in the Far East, Western Siberia, the Northwest.
main consumer "business" of wood - wood industry.It is engaged in production of sawn timber, plywood, sleepers, boards, building components, furniture, matches, wooden houses of standard type.
Summarizing, we can say that the Russian forest industry is concentrated in these economically profitable areas of the country: in the North, the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia, the Volga-Vyatka region, in the North West and the Far East.Our country is self-sufficient in lumber, plywood, cardboard, paper and other products from wood.