explored hydrocarbon reserves in the world is huge, but not all of the oil fields are developed.The main reason for the "downtime" - economically inexpedient.Many oil-bearing layers are deposited in deep water, or (and) for development in remote areas.The first major at the Odoptu field offshore Sakhalin island discovered by Soviet geologists in 1977, but only after a decade of market changes and the development of new technologies, mining black gold Sakhalin became profitable.
Under the "Sakhalin-1" comes the development and operation of three oil and gas fields - is Odoptu, Chayvo and A-D.They are located north-east of Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Okhotsk.These potentially recoverable reserves are enormous (but not record) - 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 485 billion m3 of gas.
Considering the total capacity of related work projects "Sakhalin-1" and "Sakhalin-2", and at the initial stage of the "Sakhalin-3", the total recoverable gas reserves of the region exceeded 2.4 trillion m3,oil - more than 3.2 billion barrels.It is no accident journalists call the island "a second Kuwait".
However, production from these fields is complicated by the presence of pack ice thickness of up to one and a half meters in six or seven months of the year, as well as the strong waves and seismic activity throughout the year.The need to overcome obstacles related to severe weather conditions, and the establishment in this remote area of the entire oil and gas infrastructure identified the unique nature of the tasks facing the project.
Long before the implementation of the project "Sakhalin-1" to geologists, it was clear that the hydrocarbon resources of the island are located outside the land on the shelf, but their stocks were not known.In the 70 years the scope of the definition of deposits took the company "Sakhalinmorneftegaz."Then exploration work SODEKO joined a consortium of neighboring Japan, today ranking among the project participants.
In 1977, the first offshore Sakhalin gas field was discovered Odoptu, a year - Chayvo, and 10 years later - Arkutun Dagi.Thus, the island of Sakhalin became a potentially attractive for the production of hydrocarbons.However, the lack of proper investment and technological developments prevented if the top developments.
the beginning of the XXI century the situation in the region has changed.The growing needs of the most powerful economies in the world - Japanese and Korean, as well as the rise in energy, led to the project "Sakhalin-1" pays off.More investment, and most importantly - technological assistance rendered Corporation "Exxon-Mobil" (EM).Participation of a highly professional team, which has 85 years of experience in oil and gas development in the Arctic climate, helped to solve many problems.
At the moment, the actual operator of the project - "daughter" corporation "EM", "Exxon Neftegas Limited".It is the main industrial activity.Consortium additionally solves a number of socio-economic trends in the Sakhalin Region and the neighboring Khabarovsk Territory, among them - the local economy, education and training of professional Russian personnel, social programs, charity, and more.
This oil and gas project - an example of successful international cooperation in complex geophysical, climatic and geographic conditions.To implement the project have combined their efforts:
- Megacorporations "Exxon Mobil" (USA): 30% of the shares (in connection with the sanctions further part of the American company in question).
- SODEKO Consortium (Japan): 30%.
- RGC "Rosneft" through the controlled entity "SMNG-Shelf" (11.5%) and "RN-Astra" (8.5%).
- STC "ONGC Videsh Ltd.» (India): 20%.
capital of Sakhalin oil became the city of Okha.
At the initial stage, "Sakhalin-1" occurred develops the Chayvo field using the offshore platform "Orlan" drilling and ground installation "Hawk".In early October 2005, a decade after the start of development, the Chayvo field first oil was produced.As a result of the completion in late 2006. Construction Onshore Production Facility (OPF) production volume in February 2007 reached 250,000 barrels (34,000 tons) of oil per day.In the following phases of the project started to develop gas reserves in the Chayvo for export.
then "Hawk" was moved to the neighboring Odoptu field for further drilling and production of hydrocarbons.As gas and oil comes from fields in the OPF, and then the oil is transported to the terminal in the village of De-Kastri (mainland Khabarovsk Territory, on the coast of the Tatar Strait) for further export shipment, and gas is supplied from Sakhalin to the domestic market.
next stage began with the development of the third field (the largest by area) A-D and Chayvo gas that will guarantee to produce hydrocarbons until 2050.In order to increase economic efficiency and improve the process of operation is taken into account the unique experience gained during the first phase of development.
drilling rig "Hawk»
Development of oil and gas in this area is related to the solution of complex problems posed by nature.Severe climatic conditions, powerful ice fields in the waters offshore, particularly the geological structure of oil demanded he use advanced setup.
pride of the whole project was the drilling rig "Hawk", to the "conscience" of which several world records for speed and length of wells drilled.This is one of the most powerful land-based rigs in the world.70-meter unit, designed for operation in seismic and cold arctic regions, allows ultra-long drill hole is first vertically and then horizontally below the seabed with a total length of the barrel over 11 kilometers.
In drilling these wells have established several world records for the length of the trunk - by the way, this is where the well was drilled a record 12,700 meters in length Z42 (June 2013).Thanks to the technology of high-speed drilling, which is owned by the corporation "Exxon Mobil" well "Sakhalin-1" passed the record quickly.
With the "hawks" wells drilled from shore under the ground at an angle towards the occurrence of offshore fields, thereby reducing the load on the unique protected nature of these places.In addition, a relatively compact installation replaces the large facilities that would be required to build on the high seas in difficult ice conditions in the winter.As a result, significant savings in operating and capital costs.Shut down the Chayvo field, "Hawk" modernized and moved to the neighboring development Odoptu.
addition to ground installation "Hawk", a gas-oil fields of "Sakhalin-1" mastered another "proud bird" - offshore oil production platform "Orlan".The platform produces resources in the south-western district of the Chayvo field.
50-meter design gravity-installed on the bottom of the Sea of Okhotsk, the depth at this point - 14 meters."Orlan" in 2005 drilled 20 wells.At the 21 th hole, passed the "hawks" from the bank, the number of such wells is a record for the oil and gas sector on the same field.As a result, oil production has increased several times.
On "Orlan" 9 months of the year surrounded by ice, the work involves the decision previously unknown to the country of production tasks.In addition to complex seismic and climatic conditions are difficult logistical problems are solved.
This latest platform, assembled at the shipyards of South Korea and successfully delivered in 2014 to mine A-D.Features of "Berkut" even more impressive than the "Eagle".During transport (which is 2600 km) there was not a single incident.The construction is designed to resist two-meter ice and 18-meter waves at -44 ˚C.
produced from the Chayvo and Odoptu hydrocarbons arrive at the BCP.Here comes the separation of gas, water and oil to stabilize it for further transportation for export through modern oil export terminal in De-Kastri settlement, clearing of gas for domestic consumers.Fully self-contained plant designed to process approximately 250,000 barrels of oil and an additional 22.4 million m3 of gas per day.
In the construction of the BCP designers applied large-modular method of construction.The plant constructor like assembled from 45 different height modules.All objects are specifically designed for operation in the harsh climate of the Far.Most of the structures - metal, to withstand low temperatures of up to -40 ° C.
to deliver heavy modules to the construction site across the Chayvo Bay built a unique 830-meter bridge.Due to this construction of the Sakhalin Island is the kind of record - the bridge is considered to be unbeatable robust, exceeding the length of the giant crossings greatest rivers of Siberia - the Ob and Irtysh.The building is also suitable for herders - the way to the taiga camp declined significantly.
whole complex "Sakhalin-1, 2, 3" was built with an eye to the export of resources.Having at hand "bottomless" Japan's economy, no less powerful South Korea, a sin not to use the advantageous geographic location rich hydrocarbon deposits.In addition, the project enables significant part of the raw material (mainly gas) is transported to the "mainland" (Russian mainland).The main importers of Okhotsk oil are Japan and South Korea.
technology exports following:
- Gas and oil wells on the plant enters the BCP.
- then from onshore laid on the Tatar Strait pipeline materials is left to the village of De-Kastri in the specially equipped new export terminal.
- Gas mostly goes to Russian consumers, and oil accumulates in huge tanks, where a tanker ships through remote jetty.
The development of oil fields in the conditions of the Far East demanded to solve the problem unhindered transportation of raw materials.Place the terminal, it was decided not to Sakhalin and the mainland - in the port of De-Kastri.Black gold here goes through the pipes, and then - oil tankers.The terminal was built "from scratch", according to the latest technologies.Through terminal
local population received additional high-paying jobs were orders for regional transport and service enterprises, improve the socio-public, municipal infrastructure of the village.
For year-round transportation required designing and building unique tankers harsh ice conditions of class "Afromaks" and accompanying icebreakers.For 5 years of operation of the terminal without a single incident shipped 460 tankers.Total passed through the terminal more than 45 million tons of oil.
responsibility and trouble-free operation
employees and contractors of the project "Sakhalin-1" have worked 68 million hours with excellent safety and injuries that are far superior to the industry average.Compliance with regulatory requirements is ensured by strict regulation and control of production activities.
Environmental measures are an integral part of the construction and operation of the project and include a number of special programs for the protection of wildlife, including the protection of Western Gray Whale, the Steller's sea eagles and other inhabitants.
active consultations with representatives of the indigenous population of the island of Sakhalin helped ENL identify the most pressing local problems.In particular, oil allowed the local herders to use its built bridge over Chayvo Bay for the annual haul of reindeer herds.
Recruitment and training of Russian personnel
At the initial stage of development for the Russian citizens have been created 13,000 jobs.Involving local staff creates new opportunities and contributes to general and regional economic development.At the same time, ENL applies the most modern standards of operation and safety standards, as well as construction technology, drilling, production and laying of pipelines.
to work at production facilities attracted more than a hundred Russian engineers and technicians.Each of hired technicians pass long training course.Some of them were sent for training to the objects of the company "Exxon Mobil" in the US and Canada.
in technical training programs suppliers and contractors involved more and more residents of Sakhalin.Working in conjunction with the Agency for International Development (USA), the employer contributes to the qualification of welders by organizing special training courses and provides micro loans for the passage of business training and development of the Sakhalin small and medium-sized businesses.The consortium has made more than a million dollars in loan fund through which created five hundred jobs and supports more than 180 businesses.
constantly increasing share of Russian companies as suppliers and contractors.The cost of contracts with domestic firms exceeded $ 4 billion, or about two-thirds of the total value of the contracts for the project.
In addition to providing state revenues by way of royalties, the project contributes to the development of local infrastructure - to build roads, bridges, construction of ports and airports, as well as municipal medical institutions.Other support programs include charitable donations to education, health and improvement of the local scientific and technological capacity.