Sectors of the economy: types, classification, management and economics.

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Each country has its own farm.It is thanks to the industry to replenish the budget, made the necessary goods, products, raw materials.The degree of development of the country largely depends on the efficiency of the national economy.The more developed it is, the greater the economic potential of the country and, therefore, the standard of living of its citizens.Management sectors of the economy make a special agencies.Often, strategically important enterprises controlled by the state.

concept industries

All enterprises, factories, institutions that are engaged in the manufacture of products or services of the same type, make up a certain industry.Very often, the industry sector are working closely together.They are used in the manufacture materials, raw materials, equipment other industries.All sectors of the economy can be divided into two groups.The first is the mining industry.It is engaged in mining and other types of raw materials.Also here include seafood and produce.The second category - the processing industry.This kind of treatment is engaged in all kinds of raw materials.Key sectors of the economy - a direct industry, agriculture, construction, transport system.These in turn are divided into other subtypes.

economic zone of Russia

The country has an uneven distribution of mineral resources.That is why the Russian branch of the economy constitute the two major economic zones: Eastern and Western.The first combines Siberia, the Far East and is characterized by considerable reserves of resources.Here is dominated by the mining industry.The western part does not have the raw materials.So there sectors of the economy are mainly processed.In this region it is concentrated 2/3 of all industrial areas.


Depending on what the purpose of production, isolated industrial group "A" and "B".The first is engaged in manufacturing of means of production, the second - consumer products.Also distinguish between productive and non-productive sphere.Sectors of the economy that are relevant to the industrial sector:

  • industry;
  • telecommunications, transport;
  • agriculture;
  • the forest industry;
  • construction;
  • catering.

all services, maintenance of the population is non-productive sphere:

  • health;
  • education;
  • utilities;
  • art, culture;
  • finance pensions;
  • science and so on. D.

gas, oil, coal

Energy of the country - a very important indicator of its development and economic potential.The gas industry include exploration of gas fields, its production, transportation and use.To extract natural gas is relatively inexpensive.For example, the cost exceeds the cost of coal gas production more than 10 times.The oil industry is looking for deposits, production and delivery of oil.Produced and natural gas.The most expensive is the coal industry.Black, brown coal is mined in the mines.These sectors of the economy require significant financial investments, as well as a large number of human resources.


to the fuel and energy complex and also include the production and distribution of electrical energy.It is produced in thermal power plants, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants.Thermal stations used for the production of gas, coal, fuel oil or peat.With their burning thermal energy is converted into electrical energy.On the shores of large bodies of water are building hydropower plants.The cost price of electricity produced by them is much lower.If the area has no rivers, and large stocks of fuel, the nuclear power plants under construction.Their work used uranium ore.Fuel consumption, significantly less.Another undoubted advantage - the preservation of a clean environment.The new word in energy - geothermal power plants.They use the internal heat of the earth (located near volcanoes).


sectors of the economy of many countries (including Russia), include the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.There are metallurgy full cycle (production of iron, steel, rolled products) and pig, in which iron is absent.In this type of accommodation businesses affected by the availability of raw materials and electricity.Branches of the economy of Russia, who are engaged in the production of steel and rolled - one of the world leaders.The technology of manufacture of non-ferrous metals has a number of features.First of all mined ore then is their enrichment.Produced concentrate, crude metal.To impart the required properties and parameters refining operation is performed.Allocate production Heavy (nickel, lead, tin) and light (aluminum, titanium) metals.Metallurgy of heavy metals is a material-intensive: the production of one ton of metal requires a few hundred tons of ore.Most of these companies are located near the sources of raw materials.


machine building enterprises should take into account a number of factors: the availability of raw materials and the consumer, highly qualified staff, favorable transport and geographical location.This includes the following economic sectors: automotive, car-building industry, ships, tractors.Also in this category include instrumentation, manufacturing of household appliances and electronic computers.The industry is also engaged in the manufacture of parts and components.

enterprises of wood, chemical products industries

timber industry meets us every day.This notebook, and the furniture, and more.Timber industry sector engaged in collection, processing and wood processing.Often, such businesses are located in regions with extensive plantings of trees.Wood industry manufactures building components of wood, plywood, furniture.Also, this area includes the sawmill industry.Pulp and paper industry farms produce paper, cardboard, pulp, packaging paper and more.There are also resin industries.It is engaged in the manufacture of solvents, methanol, hydrolysis production.Chemical industry includes the production of fibers, dyes, plastics, paints and coatings industry.Also in the complex include pharmacology, production of substances of organic synthesis, household chemicals.

Industries Agriculture

Agriculture is a pretty important part of the economy, in fact, it provides the population with food.This category is divided into cattle breeding and cultivation of all kinds of plants (fruits, vegetables, grain and industrial crops, and so on. N.).Agriculture, who breed animals - cattle is (meat, dairy breed), sheep, poultry.There are also farm for growing pigs, horses, fish, fur-bearing animals.Beekeeping is also one of the areas of animal husbandry.