In modern industry, bauxite is the most sought-after raw material.The rapid development of science and technology has allowed to expand its scope.What is the bauxite is mined and where it - is described in this article.
industrial importance of aluminum
Aluminium is the most common metal.By the number of deposits in the earth's crust, he ranked third.Aluminium is known to all as an element in the periodic table, which refers to the light metal.
Aluminum ore - a natural raw material from which the metal is obtained.Basically it is extracted from bauxite, which contain aluminum oxide (alumina) in the largest amount - from 28 to 80%.Other breeds - alunite, nepheline and nepheline-apatite is also used as a raw material for aluminum production, but they have a lower quality and contain significantly less of alumina.
In nonferrous metallurgy, aluminum ranks first.The fact that owing to its characteristics it is used in many industries.Thus, the metal used in transport engineering, packaging industry, construction, for the manufacture of various consumer goods.Also, aluminum is widely used in electrical engineering.
To understand how important aluminum for mankind, it is enough to look at the everyday things we use every day.Many household items are made of aluminum parts for this electrical appliances (refrigerators, washing machines and so on. D.), Utensils, sports equipment, souvenirs, interior elements.Aluminum is often used for the production of different types of packaging.For example, cans or containers of disposable foil.
types of aluminum ores
aluminum contained in over 250 minerals.Of these, the most valuable for the industry are bauxite, nepheline and alunite.Let us examine them in more detail.
aluminum in nature in its pure form is not found.Basically, it is prepared from bauxite - bauxite.This mineral, which mostly consists of aluminum hydroxides and oxides of iron and silicon.Due to the high content of alumina (40 to 60%) bauxite used as a raw material for aluminum production.
physical properties of aluminum ore:
- opaque mineral red and various shades of gray;
- hardness of the strongest models of 6 on Mohs scale;
- density of bauxite, depending on the chemical composition ranges from 2900-3500 kg / m³.
bauxite ore deposits are concentrated in the equatorial and tropical zones of the earth.Older deposits are in Russia.
How is formed aluminum ore bauxite
form of monohydrate bauxite alumina hydrate, boehmite and Diaspora trehvodnogo hydrate - hydrargillite and related minerals and iron oxide hydroxide.
Depending on the composition prirodoobrazuyuschih elements are three groups bauxite ore:
- monohydrate bauxite - contain alumina monohydrate form.
- Trigidratnye - such minerals consist of alumina in trehvodnoy form.
- Mixed - this group includes a combination of the previous aluminum ore.
deposits of raw materials are formed as a result of weathering of acidic, alkaline, and sometimes the main species, or the gradual deposition on the sea and lake bottom a large amount of alumina.
This type deposits contain up to 40% aluminum oxide.Alunite ore is formed in water basins and coastal areas under intense hydrothermal and volcanic activity.An example of such deposits - Zaglinskoe lake in the Lesser Caucasus.
Breed porous.Mostly composed of kaolinite and hydromicas.Industrial interest alunite ore with greater than 50%.
This aluminum ore magmatic origin.It is a holocrystalline alkaline rocks.Depending on the composition and technological features of processing distinguish several varieties of nepheline ore:
- first grade - 60-90% of nepheline;it contains more than 25% of alumina;Processing is carried out by sintering;
- Class II - 40-60% of nepheline, the amount of alumina is slightly lower - 22-25%;during processing requires enrichment;
- third grade - nepheline minerals that are of no commercial value.
World production of aluminum ores
first aluminum ore mined in the first half of the XIX century in the south-eastern France, near the village of Box.Hence, like the name of the bauxite.First, the industry developed slowly.But when humanity assess what bauxite useful for the production, the scope of aluminum significantly increased.Many countries have begun to search for their territories deposits deposits.Thus, world production of aluminum ores began to gradually increase.Confirmation of this fact are the numbers.So, if in 1913 the worldwide volume of mined ore was 540 thousand. Tons, in 2014 - more than 180 million tons.
also gradually increased the number of countries that produce aluminum ore.Today there are about 30. But over the past 100 years, leading countries and regions are constantly changing.So, at the beginning of the XX century the world leaders in the production of aluminum ore and its production were North America and Western Europe.These two regions accounted for about 98% of global production.After a few decades in terms of quantity of aluminum industry leaders are countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Soviet Union.And in 1950-1960-ies leader in production was the size of Latin America.In 1980-1990-ies.there was a rapid breakthrough in the aluminum industry in Australia and Africa.The main trends of the modern world leading countries in the production of aluminum are Australia, Brazil, China, Guinea, Jamaica, India, Russia, Suriname, Venezuela and Greece.
ore deposits in Russia
in terms of production of aluminum ores Russia is ranked seventh in the world rankings.Although aluminum ore deposits in Russia to provide the metal in large quantities, it is not enough to fully meet the industry.Therefore, the state is forced to buy bauxite in other countries.
Total in Russia located 50 ore deposits.This number includes both the place where the mineral being mined, and has not developed deposits.
Most of the ore reserves located in the European part of the country.Here they are in the Sverdlovsk, Arkhangelsk, Belgorod region, in the Komi Republic.All these areas contain 70% of all proven ore reserves of the country.
aluminum ore mined in Russia is still in the old bauxite deposits.Such areas include Radynskoe field in the Leningrad region.Also, due to the shortage of raw materials Russia is using other aluminum ore deposits are characterized by poorer quality mineral deposits.But they are still useful for industrial purposes.For example, in Russia is mined in large quantities nepheline ores, which also allow to obtain aluminum.