artillery shells, in contrast, for example, the aircraft is rarely given names satisfied alphanumeric code.The exceptions are few samples, among them - anti-tank gun MT-12."Rapier" - so it respectfully called in the troops.It really is a bit like it's piercing cold steel.Barrel length, elegant protective shield cover resembling Garda (small but efficient), the accuracy of the "touch" - all these qualities would have to be quite to their liking duelists past centuries.Today's artillerymen preparing for a fight of some sort.Cannon, despite his age, which is calculated for decades, is still in service.It is not out of date.
class of anti-tank guns
Until the thirties of the last century special guns to fight with armored vehicles did not create.This did not make sense: the tanks of the first two decades of the XX century were clumsy or heavy colossus, or lightly armored polutraktorami-semi-auto.They often could incapacitate without problems by conventional means near a fire fight.The war in Spain (1936) became the interim abroad, after which the theoreticians and practitioners of tactical science began to realize the importance of the armored formations in contemporary armed conflicts.As always, any idea how to neutralize the threat from the defensive maneuver of armored forces.Coverage from the flanks, leading to the environment could occur at unpredictable directions land theaters of war, and therefore for a new class of weapons consisted of a maximum of mobility and compactness.The famous frontline "sorokopyatki" copes with all types of German tanks war.During the fighting, the enemy armor technology grew.To break it, 45 mm was not enough, we needed first 75 caliber shells, and venture and 85 millimeters.By the end of the 60s, this figure increased to 100 mm.Anti-tank guns "Rapier" was intended to deal with the West German "Leopard" and the American M-60.
competition guns and ATGM
By the end of the sixth decade of the Army of the industrialized countries have at their disposal a new antitank weapon - ATGM.In essence controlled missiles were a rocket with the controls in the form of rotary wings.Their guidance is carried out either over the air or (to avoid interference) on the long thin cable is unwound from the reel, and trailing behind.It seems that now the artillery once again passed the position before the inexorably approaching scientific and technological progress.However, the military budgets also are not bottomless, and ATGM - a thing not cheap.Then military experts turned again to the old "good" guns and to his displeasure, discovered an apparent contradiction.The required accuracy was ensured rifled barrel, but, alas, they had limitations on caliber.And suddenly, this problem was solved as a result of the revolutionary approach creators guns MT-12 "Foil".
shell with stabilizers
The idea was to give the stability of the projectile in flight only "missile" means.His design included stabilizers drop-down after exiting the muzzle of the barrel.Thus, the non-rotating artillery shell could not ensure the accuracy of getting worse than released from the cut channel.Advantages of the new munition is not exhausted: Enhances strength of cumulative impacts.In addition, Yurga Machine Building Plant did not oppose the various ways of defeat armored vehicles.Anti-tank guns "Rapier" can shoot and missiles fired from the barrel, it requires additional equipment that is a snap to install in the field.
mobility and maneuver
problems faster delivery antitank artillery funds section of the front, which is under threat of a breakthrough, the designers tried to solve in different ways, until the installation on the carriage of the motorcycle engine.
100-mm anti-tank gun T-12 created KB Bucyrus led LV Korneev and VY Afanasyev, mounted on single-axis carriage with wheels of ZIL-150, torsion bar suspension carriage is increased stroke spring suspension.Simplified design done without hydraulic tool of the MT-12 "Rapier" in transport position turned out to be resistant to vibration and shock.
attached to the gun tractor MT-L and MT-LB armored, inside of which is located relatively safe payment with a minimum of four (maximum - six) people.Towing can be done with a speed of 60 km / h with a power reserve of 500 km.On the march mechanisms aiming to avoid contamination, cover themselves with a tarpaulin cover.
to firing positions
One of the main requirements for the anti-tank weapons - agility - was observed.Weight gun is about three tons, which is well within the standards of fitness for airmobile delivery.Silhouette turned squat, making it difficult to visually detect the enemy firing points.
trunk MT-12 "Foil" (long, 61 gauge) in conjunction with the breech, a holder and a muzzle brake is a single unit.The simplicity of design guarantees a quick transfer to the firing position after uncoupling from the tractor, it is enough to dilute the frame, lower the bottom sash and install broneschitami sight.Projectiles are fed by hand, they are heavy (about 80 kg).Before opening fire shutter opens manually, then after the first release liner, the operation takes place automatically.
descent is made either by pressing the handle, or by means of a rope fixed on her.
Includes full-time panoramic sight optical OP4M-40U.For firing against the sun glare filter is used.As an additional means guidance can be used APN 6-40 night vision, and when shooting in extremely adverse weather conditions (fog, snow, rain) and when there is no direct line of sight on a special bracket installed radar device.Furthermore, correction is possible fire on the hidden targets according coming from external sources.Anti-tank guns "Rapier" and can shoot missiles (after installing special equipment on it pointing the laser beam).
Depending on the purpose, apply three basic types of ammunition.To combat tanks used piercing patterns.If the target has a higher level of protection, it makes sense to fire shaped-charge fragmentation warhead, characterized by the greatest armor piercing.High-explosive shells designed to combat the manpower and the suppression of engineering emplacements.For artillery ammunition effective fire point-blank distance is 1,880 meters.The maximum range of the projectile - more than 8 km.
Guided missiles, which can also fire anti-tank guns MT-12 "Rapier", aiming to hit targets in the four kilometers distant.
Application and disadvantages
Neither sample weapons is not without drawbacks.The instrument is characterized by a high degree of versatility.This contributes to a high muzzle velocity (more than one and a half kilometers per second), the large mass of the munition, the possible elevation angle of 20 degrees, the rate of (a shot every 10 seconds), and many other advantages.Currently, over a dozen states are armed with guns MT-12 "Foil".Photos typical silhouette guns accompanies reports from conflict zones as distant from the Russian border and very close.However, some operators have already managed to stop using it.The reason for this was the physical wear and tear, and without the possibility of full recovery, and the design flaw is very successful in many respects, a muzzle brake.The fact that the shot he essentially compensates for the impact, but it unmasks the position of a bright flash of hot powder gases escaping from the hole at the end of the barrel.Russian army composed of more than two and a half thousand guns MT-12 "Rapier", most of which are conserved.