The main stages of development economics, topics and methods.

life of society is very diverse.To study the different spheres of its existence mankind has created a variety of scientific disciplines.One of them is economic theory.The study of this science is sure to start with the history of its origin and development.This will allow a better understanding of the difficult discipline.

Definition economy

There are various interpretations of this multifaceted and capacious disciplines, each of which is true.On the one hand, the economy - it is human activities.On the other - domestic or household.The conversation can go on the economy of the enterprise, industry, or the entire country.But be that as it may, this theory is the foundation of any society.

It is a life support system of the state, solving the problem not only of production but also for further distribution and consumption of a variety of goods.You can safely say that the economy emerged with the man.Today, it continues to exist for the benefit of all people.


experience any of the previous attempts to discipline the people decide certain issues related to the provision of its life.Economics and economic science also emerged for this reason.It is said that the beginnings of knowledge in the discipline even had people in primitive society, when a certain portion of any product gets produced each member.

Economics examines rules that help the state, the company or person to solve their economic problems.That is why knowledge of this discipline is important for the development of any society.


economics and economic science continued to evolve with the man.Rules and regulations of the discipline were first recorded in documents issued in the states of the Ancient East.It was a code of laws of Babylonia, which still took in 8 BC.e.Economic commandments to mankind recorded in the Bible.They belong to the 2nd and 1st millennium BC.

is believed that the main stages of development economics still has its origins in ancient society.The emergence of this discipline associated with the works of the philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome.Initially, they considered only the works of household management and economics.

It is also believed that the main stages of economic science as an independent discipline took place only in the 16-17 centuries.This occurred during the emergence of the capitalist system.It was at this time began to develop communication within the enterprise and between families, began to form international and national markets.State increasingly began to pay attention to the economic life of society.All this caused a widespread discipline in production and consumption of various goods.

Milestones include economics and the emergence of political economy.This new term first appeared in the 17th century.after the book by Antoine de Montchretien - economist from France.The work, which was called "A Treatise on Political Economy", developed the theory of the need for strict government control of the existing market.It is not considered household management.Political economy has become be a science of the laws governing the formation of the national market.In other words, the discipline has significantly expanded the scope of its investigation.These are the main stages of development economics (briefly).

Today the theory of production and distribution of a variety of goods in each country is called differently.For example, in Sweden and Turkey is a "national economy" and in Finland, the term sounds like "the doctrine of the economy."In modern Russia, the name of the discipline is the "general economic theory".

Subject matter

At all times, economists are interested in a wide range of problems facing human society.That is why there was no common understanding of the subject matter of the discipline.While some experts believe that science deals with the material well-being of people, while others have argued that the theory determines the organization of consumption and exchange.There were many other opinions.

Modern economics is based on the fact that the subject of its study is the problem of limited resources and the immensity of society's material needs of man.In today's society the discipline solves the problem of obtaining the maximum benefit at the lowest cost incurred.

System of Economic Sciences is the general theory.In this discipline there are three main sections:

- introduction to economics;
- Microeconomics;
- macroeconomics.

All areas of economics are more important.However, the first of them is especially important.It serves the fundamental and methodological function.That is why it is impossible without studying the development of both micro- and macroeconomics.

second section examines science small economic units, giving an explanation of the choices made by companies and individuals.As for macroeconomics, the study is a large-scale market phenomena occurring at the level of the state and society.The second and third sections of economic science have clear lines.Micro and macroeconomics are closely linked.This is not surprising, because all the decisions taken at the level of economic entities, have a direct impact on the formation of the national market.

Functions economic discipline

What is the role of the science of production and distribution of wealth created by society?The main function of the economy - cognitive.Discipline describes summarizes and explains all the processes of production and consumption.

system of economic science is based on the economy, which is the main methodological base of all its directions.This is the second main feature of the discipline.The theory is developing tools and instruments for the study of the economy of trade and industry, transport, catering and so on. D.

Economics and serves a practical function.She points to all the desirable and undesirable steps and measures that are essential for the prosperity of society at this stage of its development.

There are certain socio-economic sciences.Their main function is to examine the various aspects of the behavior of the individual in society.These sciences include sociology and political science, and psychology.The object of study of these disciplines overlap with the subject of the study of economics.


subject, consider any science that studies using certain methods.The methods of economics are different.Their list are:

1. Formal logic.With the help of economic phenomena are studied by their shape and structure.
2. Analysis.This method involves the study of the subject matter of each part separately.
3. Induction.This method follow from the particular to the general, and construction on the basis of the collected evidence a certain theory.
4. Deduction.The basic principle of this method is to construct a hypothesis which subsequently compared with the facts.
5. Comparison.It is a way revealing the similarities and differences of processes and phenomena and allows to identify new terms of the already learned.
6. The analogy.This method involves the transfer of certain properties to have studied the phenomenon of an unknown.
7. Dialectics.This method uses an extensive set of various methods of cognition.
8. scientific abstraction.It assumes the immutability of all phenomena of the economic sphere, in addition to being studied.
9. The historical method.This method allows to estimate characteristics which have different economic system.
10. The logical method.Its use provides a transition from simple to more complex.

Existing methods of economics and include economic and mathematical modeling.It is a simplified description of reality.Such a model should assist in determining the cause of a variety of economic phenomena, their changes, patterns, and the impact that they can carry.

Limbo economics

Systematics so important for human society of discipline was in parallel with the formation of the state.The first stages of economic science were in the heyday of the Ancient World.The origins of this discipline are reflected in the works of philosophers and some state governors.These thinkers sought to idealize the slave society and natural economy, relying on the rules of ethics, morality and ethics.

initial basic stages of development economics have been passed through the philosophers of ancient Greece.In his writings, they systematized naive sketchy ideas about the production and distribution of wealth.This was the birth of a new discipline, which has a scientific appearance.

The list of prominent thinkers are Xenophon, Plato and Aristotle.And the main stages of development economics from the beginning to the present day it is impossible to describe without mentioning these scientists.After all, Plato introduced the concept of "economy".This philosopher made the first attempt to substantiate the correctness of the division of labor and highlighted sectors such as trade, handicrafts and agriculture.Xenophon preference for subsistence farming and naturally thought the existence of free men and slaves.

huge contribution to the development of economic science made by Plato.He created the theory of the ideal state, the basis of the existence of which is justice.According to him, in such a social system everyone should do only what he is capable of doing the most.

contribute to the development of economic science has made and Aristotle.His works reflected all areas of knowledge that existed at the time.According to Aristotle, slavery - is the basis of any legal proceedings, and slaves - live tools.He argued that a person can not exist outside of the state and society.

development economics got its continuation in an era of conducting a feudal economy.The theory of production and distribution of wealth was theological.In the writings of the philosophers of the Middle Ages it was justified by the economic dominance of ecclesiastical and secular feudal lords.One of these scientists was the Arab statesman, philosopher and historian Ibn Khaldun.

main stages of development economics and economic systems can not be described without mentioning his work.Ibn Khaldun insisted on the elimination of greed and extravagance, spoke negatively about major usurious transactions and claimed a charitable trade.In contrast to the theories of the philosophers of the ancient world, the Arab thinker raised the money made in the form of coins of gold and silver in the category of the most important elements of economic life.

In Western Europe, the most significant authors of economic thought in the Middle Ages were the St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas.The first of these two philosophers insisted on the need for universal labor, expressing the idea of ​​the equality of mental and physical shape.This thinker considered a great sin to obtain trading profits and usurious activity.

According to the theory of Thomas Aquinas, all things in the world do not belong to men but to God.It is therefore by nature they should be shared.Philosopher condemned usury, but insisted on the need for the existence of classes and private property.

Creation of schools of economic theory

run out of the dark days of the Middle Ages.But the basic problem of economics have not been resolved.They consisted in the fact that the philosophers of the ancient world and the Middle Ages were not able to make a single doctrine.Their eyes had sketchy.

Renaissance was a period of creation of the first school of economic theory.She was known as mercantilism, which translated from Latin means "to trade."Proponents of this theory, identified the wealth of the nation with silver and gold, the source of which is the sphere of circulation.The representatives of this school were not theorists.Most of them were merchants-navigators.

In those days, when there were made great geographical discoveries, was formed early mercantilism.Actual direction was given to the mid-16th century.Representatives of this school saw only legal way to increase wealth.They prohibited the export of gold and silver, as well as limited import operations.

16 to the mid-17th century was the dawn of a late mercantilism.The basis of the teaching of the school is to increase the flow of exports, compared to imports of goods.Adherents of the school of the late mercantilism believed that, while maintaining a favorable balance of trade country will become richer.The representatives of this trend were allowed to engage in the export of the country of gold and silver.This made it possible to carry out profitable trade deals.At the same time the import duties levied on large and exports most welcome.

problems of economic science after the second half of the 18th century.It solves the doctrine of the Physiocrats.On the basis of the school was established French economists.

Physiocrats argued that the source of wealth of any nation is the sphere of material production, not of circulation.However, they only talk about the importance of agricultural labor.Proponents of this theory, the whole society is divided into three classes:

- farmers;
- land owners;
- all other citizens.

last of these three classes Physiocrats called barren.

Classical School of Political Economy

The name of this trend was true for the scientific nature of their methodologies and theories.The school of political economy emerged in the late 17th c., Reaching its peak in the 18-19 centuries.In the development of this flow may be allocated four stages.The first one lasted from the late 17th to the second half of the 18th century.This was the period when the rapidly developing market economy and economic thought focused on the manufacturing sector.The representatives of this school, which included the Englishman William Petty and the Frenchman Pierre Buagilberg argued that the nation becomes rich not only because of the precious metals.A significant role to play as the house and land, goods and ships.

In the last third of the 18th century.the second phase of the development of classical political economy.During this period, the works were written by Adam Smith - the Scottish philosopher and economist.He has made an invaluable contribution to the economy, to put this discipline as a coherent theory, finding the relationship between all of its elements.Adam Smith argued that only self-interest motivates a person to economic activity.According to the philosopher, all people want to accumulate wealth and to improve their financial situation.This is carried out by the individual work contributes to the flourishing of society.The philosopher believed that the laws of economics will operate only in conditions of free competition and of free movement of capital, money and goods.

In the first half of the 19th century.The third phase of the school of political economy.This was the period when the most developed countries completed the industrial revolution.

good representative of this school was D. Ricardo.They had completed the creation of classical political economy.Riccardo undoubted merit is its presentation of the discipline in a logical sequence and ordering available at a time of economic knowledge.Scientists formulated the theory of comparative advantage, which served as evidence of mutually beneficial international trade.

important role of economics in the development of society has been proven in the fourth and last stage of the school of classical political economy, which began its existence in the second half of the 19th century.The most outstanding representatives of this movement was John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx.

In their work, scientists have relied on the provisions of the classical school, but at the same time put forward innovative ideas.They argued about the necessity of state participation in economic and social development of society, we talked about the socialist system, to protect and defend the interests of the working class.