Blood Cancer directly affects the production and function of blood cells.Malignant process often begins in the bone marrow.Bone marrow stem cells mature and develop blood cells acquire characteristics of three types: red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets.If you have cancer of the normal process of cell development is disturbed due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood cells.This cancer cells, preventing the implementation of the basic functions of the blood.In particular, mechanisms are broken protection from infection and prevention of severe bleeding.
Varieties There are three main types of cancer pathologies, wearing general known as "blood cancer".The symptoms (signs), the treatment and rehabilitation of disorders depend on the species and the stage of disease.
- Leukemia.In this disease the cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.The main feature - the rapid accumulation of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes).Increasing their numbers is the inability of the body to fight infections and prevents normal development of red blood cells and platelets.
- Lymphoma.This type of cancer affects the lymph system, which is responsible for removing excess fluid from the body and the production of immune cells.Lymphocytes - a type of white blood cells, preventing infection.Pathological transformed lymphocytes in lymphoma cells, which proliferate and accumulate in the lymph nodes and other tissues.Over time, these cancers are destroying the immune system.
- Myeloma.So it called a cancer of plasma cells - white blood cells responsible for the production of antibodies to diseases and infections.Cancer undermines the immune system, weakening the body.
Leukemia Leukaemia - a cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow and lymphatic system.
There are many forms of the disease.Some are more common in children, and other - in adults.
blood cancer symptoms in adults (leukemia) vary depending on the subtype of disease.However, we can identify a number of common features, among which are registered:
- fever or chills;
- chronic fatigue and weakness;
- frequent or severe infections;
- unexplained weight loss;
- inflamed lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen;
- tendency to bleeding and bruising;
- frequent nosebleeds;
- appearance of red spots on the skin (petechiae);
- sweating, especially at night;
- bone pain;
- brittle bones.
sure to consult your physician if you are concerned about any of the above symptoms.
signs of leukemia often lack clarity and specificity.They can easily be overlooked or attributed to more common diseases - such as influenza.
In rare cases, the analysis of which has been handed to diagnose other ailments, reveals blood cancer.Causes, symptoms (signs), treatment and rehabilitation in such cases are individual.
There are factors that increase the risk of developing certain types of leukemia.These include the following circumstances:
- Cancer Treatment of another type.Leukemia can threaten patients who have undergone the full course of radio- or chemotherapy.
- genetic pathology.Increased risk of leukemia accompanied by such genetic diseases as Down syndrome.
- exposure to certain chemicals.Especially dangerous is benzene, which is part of gasoline.
- Smoking.The use of cigarettes increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.
- Leukemia family history.As with many diseases, leukemia can be caused by hereditary factors.
However, not all people in groups at risk of developing leukemia.Conversely, potential patients oncologists often do not realize that they face a cancer of the blood.Symptoms in women in many respects similar to the symptoms of hormonal failure or infection.
Myeloma Myeloma (including multiple) - a cancer of plasma cells.These cells help fight infection by creating antibodies that recognize and destroy parasites.
Myeloma causes the accumulation of abnormal cells in the bone marrow, where they are gradually replacing healthy cells.Instead of generating useful antibody cancer tumors produce abnormal proteins, subsequently causing kidney problems.
Myeloma does not require active treatment, if the patient does not suffer from symptoms.If there are relevant symptoms, the doctor prescribes the procedures and medicines to facilitate the symptoms of cancer of the blood of this species.
In the early stages of the disease symptoms of blood cancer in adults are generally not available.Later, you may experience the following states:
- loss of appetite;
- dizziness or disorientation in time and space;
- bone pain, especially in the back or chest;
- frequent infections;
- weight loss;
- weakness or numbness of the feet;
- excessive thirst.
Risk Factors The following conditions increase the risk of myeloma:
- Age.Most cases are diagnosed in patients between the ages of 60-70 years.
- male.The symptoms (signs) of blood cancer in women appear less often than men.
- negroid.Do blacks myeloma risk twice as high as in patients-Caucasians.
- presence in the history of the diagnosis "monoclonal gammopathy of unknown etiology."One percent of patients with the disease of plasma cells after suffering from blood cancer.
Lymphoma Lymphoma - a cancer of the lymphatic system, designed to fight diseases.
The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes (lymph glands), spleen, thymus (thymus) gland and bone marrow.Cancer can affect all of these elements, as well as other organs throughout the body.
There are many varieties of the disease, but in the first place, it is divided into two types:
- Hodgkin's lymphoma.
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Treatment depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the wishes of the patient.Typically used radio- and chemotherapy, biological therapy drugs, as well as stem cell transplantation, which helps stop the blood cancer.Causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease is determined on an individual basis.
Earlier this ailment called Hodgkin's disease.When this type of cancer diagnosed in the abnormal growth of lymphatic cells that may have spread beyond it.As the disease progresses disrupted the body's ability to resist infections.
Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma give patients diagnosed with this hope for a full recovery.Currently, the forecast continues to improve.
In order to ensure timely detection and treatment of the disease should pay particular attention to the following main symptoms of blood cancer (Hodgkin's lymphoma):
- painless swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Fever or chills.
- Sweating at night (nocturnal hot flashes).
- Unexplained weight loss (ten percent or more of body weight).
- Loss of appetite.
- increased sensitivity to alcohol and pain in the lymph nodes after drinking.
What can cause the development of cancer of the blood?Factors that increase the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma, include the following circumstances:
- Age.This type of cancer diagnosed in patients aged 15 to 30 years, as well as those who have reached 55 years.
- Lymphoma family history.If a close relative diagnosed with lymphomas of any type (both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin so), the patient is at risk, as it may inherit a blood cancer.Symptoms in women are usually characterized by a sufficient specificity and allows you to quickly make a diagnosis.
- Paul.In men, this disease occurs slightly more often than women.
- previous infection with Epstein-Barr virus.Diseases caused by Epstein-Barr virus (such as infectious mononucleosis), increase the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
- weakness of the immune system.The risk is higher if the patient is diagnosed with HIV / AIDS, or if the patient suffered organ transplantation, which requires the use of medication to suppress the immune response.
When non-Hodgkin lymphoma tumors develop from lymphocytes - white blood cells.
This disease is much more common than Hodgkin lymphoma.According to statistics, the most common subspecies of blood cancer is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DKKL) and follicular lymphoma.
According to subjective grounds is not always possible to immediately determine the blood cancer.Symptoms in women as in men include:
- Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin.
- pain or inflammation in the abdomen.
- pain in the chest, cough or shortness of breath.
- Sweating at night (nocturnal hot flashes).
- weight loss.
Certain circumstances may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Among them:
- Taking medicines which depress the immune system.Drugs of this type are used in organ transplantation.
- diseases caused by certain viruses and bacteria.Viruses associated with the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include HIV infection and Epstein-Barr virus.Among the bacteria is considered to be particularly dangerous Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers.
- impact of chemicals.Certain substances, including those used to kill insect pests and weeds, in rare cases cause a blood cancer.Symptoms in women usually occur faster than in men.
- elderly.Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur at any age, but most often it is diagnosed in patients older than 60 years.
In the US, the diagnosis of "blood cancer" is placed approximately every three minutes.Every ten minutes from leukemia, myeloma or lymphoma, one American dies - about 152 people per day.
More than 310,000 people in the US are living with a diagnosis of "leukemia", almost 731 000 treat Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 89,000 struggling with myeloma.The forecast is more favorable for Caucasians.