important and responsible period in the bee-keeping - is the preservation of their pets in the "battle of the" In the cold season.It is imperative to find the right way of living bees at this time, the benefit of today there are many interesting and economical option.
What is the bee wintering
successful stay of the heat-loving insects in the cold, it can be said, is one of the most difficult tasks in the beekeeping, because imagine - for a long time (2 to 5 months, depending on the climatic characteristics of the region) pets are less mobile state than ever.
It is necessary to take care not only about their comfortable stay, but also on stocks, which should suffice for the winter.There are several types of bees stay in the cold season:
- wintering bees in the wild (we'll discuss this in more detail in this article);
- wintering bees in omshanike (it can be specially created winterer and ordinary basement of a private house).
Throughout the Cold pores is important to monitor the condition of bees - it is enough to do once a month, listening to their wiggling inside, using a specially created for this handset.With the noise can be determined a number of problems: if the sound is strong enough, it speaks about the deterioration of the health of the inhabitants, which cause a number of factors.
One of the main difficulties is the bee wintering nonconformity temperatures.The fact that older insects and those that have been withdrawn by type of the northern regions, suffer cold better than the younger and southerners.It is therefore desirable to have a single breed of bees.
important problem is the fact that the body of these insects is arranged in such a way from excessive moisture or, conversely, from the air of dried bees can start health problems, because they need to remain constant and year-round in as close as possible to natural conditions.This factor is always the alternative - wintering bees in the wild without insulation in nature similar to the natural habitat of insects.
Do not forget about the accumulation of waste in the intestines that remain from the last revisions of honey.Unfortunately, the body of bees is designed so that they can only defecate during the spring fly-around, so sometimes such events can become a cause of death.
What is needed for successful wintering
first step is to decide how will endure cold insects - in the wild or is it in omshanike.It depends on the financial capacity of the beekeeper, and the breed of insects.Wintering bees in the wild excludes any painstaking preparation room, as opposed to the second option, so if selected as the site winterer - should be carefully adjust.
But any selected method is essential to pay special attention to the ample supply of fodder.They should not be enough to insects are not starving, but you can not overfeed them, leaving excessive stocks.
Particular attention should be paid to the composition of the bee family - one of them must be present from the very young are late broods and reproductive cancer.
And most importantly - before hibernation is necessary to carry out maintenance works in accordance with the sanitary standards.In the cold period of the bees do not have to disturb the pests that spread various infections.
Wintering bees without a uterus
known that queenless family doomed because the bees do not have the possibility of further fertilization.But we should not forget the fact that some families with their presence are also subject to great danger, because certain individuals are simply unable to continue the race.
What do you do when wintering bees in the wild is likely to remain without a uterus in the family?Do not panic - you can fix everything and fall.To do this, you need to pay attention to the condition of the family - if it is fat, it is necessary to knock him, but if a leaky - it is better to leave this family in the wax.Then you choose Rejected available, and pick out the uterus, which should be moved to queenless family.
But this is not enough for a successful winter.For hedging, the bee survive in another brood, it is necessary to add some older bees from other hives for breeding.
But if queenless family discovered a week before the winter, it is better not to risk and not to engage in the amendment - all the same in this case, and under such terms success is too small.Since there is no guarantee that a young, newly Sharing a uterus does not lose in mating with drones.Therefore, under these circumstances, one can only hope for success.
What is the wintering of bees in the wild
Freestyle hibernation is good that the first circled the bees starts a month earlier than those who winter in basements and omshanikah.So by the time the family of the premises available to the first sunny spring days, in insects, are in free conditions, there are already up to four frames of brood.
When loosely habitats throughout the entire cold period should pay special attention to the condition of hives, as they tend to syret wall, which favors the growth of mold directly into the cells.
therefore desirable since autumn wrap their tight black paper, and cover with dry leaves - this will help keep the winter dwelling warm and dry as long as possible.More can be added to warm them or industrial film or roofing felt.
Do not forget that during the cold bees may lack of ventilation, so they should be to listen and, if necessary, gently add the fresh air.
winter under the snow
Another way to save the family during the cold period - a wintering bees in the wild in the snow.This method includes the above, but the hives covered with snow, without any exception, and taps.Snow breaks in the spring thaw period or when the top crust is formed.In addition, each hive is necessary before the cold weather wrap some stuff that could insulate the heat fluxes.
This kind of winter is good that the bees are ready for the first overflight since early spring thaw, but it also has its drawbacks.For example, if the winter without snow, the hives are left without reliable protection that their condition worsens.It is recommended pristavlyat not thick wooden plank to the dwelling, which act as additional protection against frost.In general, they can be left, and after the snow has fallen, and so long until it is spring, in this case playing the role of wood bees additional protection against birds.
wintering bees in the wild in Siberia
known that in cold regions, such as Siberia, bee family stronger, so are able to transfer the cold and outdoors.So often in such places these insects hibernate in the wild.
As mentioned above, the most important thing to protect hives from drafts as wintering bees in the wild in West Siberia - is first and foremost a serious test for the insects, because the wind in these locations in the cold season strong and very cold.
is therefore essential to protect homes from damaging external factors, but not limited to weather conditions, but also from rodents and birds.Do not forget that the hives warm southern species of insects should be stronger than the central Russian, since they are less resistant to the Siberian cold.Since in this region the snow is more than enough for a successful winter, they are encouraged to throw quality from the beginning of winter and no longer bother.
Cold time to the Moscow region
In this region there is enough crude in the climate of the cold season, despite adequate average amount of snow (about half a meter, sometimes more).Therefore wintering bees in the wild in the Moscow region should start with high-quality training and warming hives.
To not formed within the mold due to the features of the local climate, it is necessary to artificially increase the space under the frame is formed so that a special pillow from the air, which adds a dry and warm winter home.
addition, to further conserve heat family desirably placed close to each other.
However, the undoubted advantage of the climate in the Moscow region is the fact that here the temperature fluctuates by a small amplitude during the day, so much differences are not observed, and the bees will carry on the winter safely.
Wintering in Bashkiria
Due to the rather mild climate in these places, wintering bees in the wild in Bashkiria flows quietly.Moreover, hives not need special insulation such as in Siberia.And the climate is less humid than in the Moscow region in the surrounding areas.
For local moderate continental climate enough to stick to the tips that have been described above with respect to the free stay of bees during the cold season.