In today's world there are thousands of different sciences, educational sciences, sections and other structural units.However, a special place among all the occupied ones that are directly related to human rights and everything that surrounds it.It is a system of natural sciences.Of course, all the other disciplines are also important.But this group has a very ancient origin, and therefore of particular importance in people's lives.
What is science?
The answer to this question is simple.These are subjects that are engaged in the study of man, his health, as well as the whole environment: the soil, the atmosphere, the Earth as a whole, the cosmos, nature, the substances that make up all living and non-living body, their transformations.
study of natural sciences was interesting to people since ancient times.How to get rid of the disease, what is in the body from the inside, why the stars shine and what they represent, as well as millions of such issues - that's what interested mankind since the very beginning of its occurrence.Answers to these and give considered discipline.
Therefore, the question of what the natural sciences, the answer is unequivocal.It is the discipline that studies the nature and all living things.
There are several major groups that belong to the natural sciences:
- Chemical (analytical, organic, inorganic, quantum, fizkolloidnaya chemistry, chemistry of organometallic compounds).
- biological (anatomy, physiology, botany, zoology, genetics).
- physical (physics, physical chemistry, physics and mathematics).
- Earth sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, astrochemistry, space biology).
- Sciences about the Earth's shells (hydrology, meteorology, mineralogy, paleontology, physical geography, geology).
Here are just basic science.However, it should be understood that each of them has its own sub-sections, branches, and subsidiaries side discipline.And if you combine all of them together, you can get a whole range of natural sciences, the hundreds of units.
In this case it can be divided into three broad groups of disciplines:
interaction between disciplines is
Of course, no one discipline can not exist in isolation from the others.All are harmonious in close cooperation with each other to form a single complex.For example, knowledge of biology would not be possible without the use of hardware, designed on the basis of physics.
This transformation in living beings to explore possible without knowledge of chemistry, because every body - is a factory of reactions occurring with tremendous speed.
relationship of the natural sciences are always traced.Historically, that the development of one of them entailed intensive growth and accumulation of knowledge to another.As soon began to explore new lands, opened the island, land areas, so soon were developed and zoology, and botany.After all, new habitats were settled (though not all) of the previously unknown members of the human race.Thus, closely bound together by geography and biology.
If we talk about astronomy and related disciplines, it is impossible not to mention the fact that they were developed by scientific discoveries in the field of physics and chemistry.Construction of the telescope largely determine the success in this field.
such examples mass.They all illustrate the close relationship between all the natural sciences, make up one huge group.Below we consider the methods of the natural sciences.
Before settling on methods of investigation used by the science in question should designate the objects of their study.They are:
Each of these objects has its own characteristics, and to study them is necessary to choose one or the other method.Among them, as a rule, are the following:
- Observation - one of the most simple and effective way to learn the ancient world.
- experiment - the basis of chemistry, most of the biological and physical sciences.It allows you to get a result, and it will conclude on theoretical grounds.
- Comparison - This method is based on historically accumulated knowledge on a particular subject and compare them with the results.Based on the analysis concludes innovation, quality and other characteristics of the object.
- analysis.This method can include mathematical modeling, systematization, generalization performance.The most common is the final after a series of other studies.
- Measure - used to estimate the parameters of specific objects animate and inanimate nature.
There are also the most recent, modern research methods, which are used in physics, chemistry, medicine, biochemistry and genetic engineering, genetics and other important sciences.It:
- electron and laser microscopy;
- biochemical analysis;
- X-ray structural analysis;
- chromatography and others.
Of course, this is not a complete list.There are many wide variety of devices to operate in every area of scientific knowledge.To all of the individual approach, and thus formed a set of techniques, machinery and equipment chosen.
Modern Problems of Natural Science
main problems of natural sciences at the present stage of development - is the search for new information, the accumulation of theoretical knowledge in a more in-depth, saturated format.Prior to the beginning of the XX century the main problem discussed subjects was the confrontation humanitarian sectors.
Today, however, the obstacle is no longer relevant, since mankind has realized the importance of interdisciplinary integration to steal the knowledge of the person, nature, space and other things.
Now the natural science disciplines cycle is a different problem: how to preserve nature and protect it from the impact of human and economic activities?And the problems are the most pressing:
- acid rain;
- the greenhouse effect;
- destruction of the ozone layer;
- extinction of species of plants and animals;
- pollution and others.
In most cases, the answer to the question "What is science?"immediately comes to mind one word - biology.This opinion for most people, not related to science.And it is absolutely correct opinion.After all, what it is not biology, directly and very closely connects nature and man?
All disciplines that make up this science, aimed at the study of living systems and their interaction with each other and with the environment.It is therefore quite normal that biologists believe the founder of Natural Sciences.
In addition, it is also one of the oldest.After all, people's interest in himself, his body, surrounding plants and animals born with man.With the same discipline closely related genetics, medicine, botany, zoology, anatomy.All these industries account for biology in general.They give us a complete idea of the nature and of man, and of all living systems and organisms.
Chemistry and Physics
These fundamental in the development of knowledge about the bodies, substances and natural phenomena of science are no less ancient than biology.They also evolved with the development of human formation of his social environment.The main tasks of these sciences is the study of all the bodies of animate and inanimate nature in terms of the processes occurring in them, their relationship with the environment.
So, physics is considering natural phenomena, mechanisms and their causes.Chemistry is based on knowledge of the substances and their interconversions into each other.
That is what the natural sciences.
And finally, list the discipline, allowing learn more about our house, whose name - the Earth.To those include:
- soil science;
- tectonics and others.
There are about 35 different disciplines.Together, they are studying the planet, its structure, properties and features that is so necessary for the life and development of the economy.