shoulder straps - an essential attribute of any military or law enforcement officers in most countries.How long have they appeared in Russia?How to distinguish between them depending on the rank?Are the shoulder straps of the military sample from those that are law enforcement officers?Do national standards governing the appearance of the insignia in the army and law enforcement agencies?In this article we will try to answer all these questions, simultaneously analyze the look of the mentioned attributes of the form of junior and senior officers, in Vol. H. The shoulder straps and major.Photos will also be presented.
history army insignia
Some historians agree that before in Russia there was the army, which operates on a regular basis, external difference military officers had very few criteria.The senior and junior ranks of distinguished except that cover the type of clothes and arms.Some modernization has occurred in the time of Peter the Great.Officers began wearing gorgets (badges as a scarf, which was attended by members of the state heraldry).At the beginning of the XIX century in Russian army uniforms were introduced, the design close to the modern ("frachnyh").There were hats, emphasizing the difference in rank.Gradually it became fashionable epaulets.For officers they match the color of the shape, and the generals were of gold shades.Some samples epaulettes allows us to distinguish, say, ober, and staff officers.However, this distinction did not say anything about the military ranks.
In the 20-ies of the XIX century in the uniform of the Russian soldiers appeared asterisk.One meant that the military has the rank of warrant officer, two major - three - of lieutenant colonel, four - captain.Colonels, however, wore epaulets, on which there was no star at all.In the 1840s, non-commissioned officers insignia purchased in the form of transverse stripes, something similar's stripes in the Soviet Army sergeant.
epaulets and stars in a more or less modern form emerged in Russia in the middle of the XIX century.Their appearance some historians associate with the introduction of a new model of clothing - a camp uniform.Shoulder straps, which were sewn braid and stars (it is noteworthy that all the officers, including senior officials, their size was the same), fixed on the shoulders of uniforms.
After the 1917 revolution, the stars and straps, as one of the symbols of the tsarist regime, were abolished.But over time the military leadership of the Soviet Union began to return to historical insignia.First there were stripes on the sleeves, and in 1943 - straps.Photos and videos in those years allow to study in detail their characteristics.
chase in the Soviet army
in January 1943 were adopted by Decree of the USSR Supreme Council on the introduction of the shoulder straps for the Red Army.Since the Insignia will certainly present on the clothing of the Soviet soldiers, and later Russian.Many historians agree that the appearance of cuts in the USSR could be regarded as a sensation in the relatively recently - with respect to the point - the historical perspective this item military clothing openly despised by the Bolsheviks as strongly associated with the tsarist government.In the Red Army there are two kinds of shoulder straps (the same as in the Imperial, by the way) to be worn in the field and everyday.First different camouflage colors ("hacks"), trimmed with colored edging.
on straps intended for everyday wear, placed the emblem corresponding to the combat arm, and brass buttons.Insignia privates sometimes contain the number of the military unit.One of the basic differences, according to a number of military historians, between the Tsarist and Soviet epaulets - in the magnitude of Stars.In the USSR, they were larger.
Some historians point out the following fact: since the introduction of cuts in the USSR in the war it was gradually forgotten to return the word "officer" and actively used at the royal regime.Under Soviet rule, this category was called military command and supervisory staff.Sometimes use the expression "the commander of the Red Army."
Legally, the term "officer" was not enshrined in the Soviet Union.Initially it was used informally in oral conversations.But over time, he went to the army, and it is the official document on principles.However, as noted by historians, some orders even in 1942 the word "officer" is still present.
stars on the shoulder straps
in the army of the Russian Empire, Soviet troops (after 1943) and modern armed forces of the Russian Federation as one of the main elements are the stars on the shoulder straps.In different periods of their shape and color may vary.There were clean gold stars on the epaulets, silver, metal.At the time of approval in 1943, they were flat, and only over the years acquired a three-dimensional shape - steel ribbed, with elements of the corrugations.The diameter of the larger elements - 20 mm, small - 13 mm.First, the Soviet army was supplied with brass stars, later - aluminum.Prior 80s they have a silver color, then - gold (except for the star field cuts - they were dark green and vyponyalis steel).
These features army of stars formed in the Soviet times, remain relevant for the modern Russian army.Changes, if there is, it is small.Sometimes, there are Russian military khaki stars or the usual green.More in detail, made of metal, now in most cases, smoothed face.Among other notable innovations - the "falshpogony" in which the various elements, including the star painted with paint.Their use is almost always restricted to the field form.According to some military experts, "falshpogony" soldiers came to their liking because of the convenience - conventional metal stars could cling backpacks, jackets, glisten in the sun and thus to give the enemy soldiers.
basic formats military epaulettes in Russia
Appearance cuts contemporary Russian officers was first approved by the Decree of the President of the country in 1994 and the same legal act in 2010 (and its subsequent editions).The symbolism characteristic of the Soviet period (hammer and sickle emblem of the USSR), was replaced by Russian.According to the standards adopted at the highest political level, the shoulder straps should have a rectangular shape (upper edge - in the form of a trapeze), have a color - or golden tones with matching uniforms.On the straps of various departments there is an edge of a certain color.Also on these attributes present form button.
In Airborne, the Army Air Forces, Space Forces straps fitted with blue edging.The FSB, services, special facilities, and the Federal Guard Service of the element on the shoulder straps is not at all or whether it cornflower blue.
Otherness have epaulets Marshal of the Russian Federation - to their longitudinal axis of the line is the star, and the edge - red.
Star insignia on the soldiers of a modern army of the Russian Federation and located in accordance with the standards.Shoulder straps Army General distinguishes one star, whose size is larger than that of the officers of lower rank, the title contains the word "general".Color edge depends on the type of troops.A similar format has straps Navy admirals.They - one star, big in size than those that are located on the insignia from Vice and Rear Admirals.
shoulder straps, approved in the Russian Federation, have an element such as a skylight.Their number depends on the rank of the soldier.Shoulder straps colonel in the Russian army and contain two major lumen.Captain, Lieutenant - one.
soldier of the army of the Russian Federation
The lower the rank approved by the army of the Russian Federation - the ordinary.Officially, it was confirmed in 1946, before the soldiers were called the Red Army soldiers or.Sometimes, when referring to the soldier added other words.For example, ordinary justice (in the case of the Reserve Forces).The Navy analogue of the title ordinary - a sailor.Soldiers who have achieved some success in military service can receive corporal rank (navy - Seaman).In the absence of higher-level commanders they can manage a platoon of ordinary (sailors).How to determine both the military rank of shoulder straps?Very simple: the average on the insignia have the abbreviation BC and there are no additional elements.We have a corporal's stripes.
next in rank to the rank of privates - Sergeant.Usually, it is prepared for corporals any merit or good discipline, sometimes - dismissal from the army in reserve.The Navy rank of junior sergeant corresponds to the rank of sergeant-major of the second article.A soldier can rise to the rank of sergeant.The same title can get cadet.Rank higher in the Army - Sergeant.An interesting fact is that the title is exactly the same and in sound in the Navy - not one and the same.The Army sergeant considered two notches above sergeant.The ships - different.It is referred to as the doyen of the military, the appropriate rank of sergeant overland.Earlier in the Army - Staff Sergeant.In the Navy he - the chief petty officer.Then the soldiers of the army of the Russian Federation could rise to the rank of ensign (navy - warrant officer), and after - to gain the title of "elder."
junior sergeant on the shoulder straps have an abbreviation, and two sun's stripes.Sergeant - three, the older - one broad Insignias.Sergeant wears insignia with one wide and one narrow Insignias.Ensigns and warrant officers wear uniforms on the two stars, with the rank of senior - three.Location stars on the epaulets - in a row.
Under the junior officers means the totality of military ranks from second lieutenant (which is considered higher in rank than lieutenant) to captain (lower rank than Major).Often soldiers present in the battalion level, platoons and battalions, also referred to as junior officers.Graduates of the military profile (or final year students of these institutions) can obtain the rank of second lieutenant.In some cases (for example, if an officer to perform a certain task group is not enough), this grade can be assigned to the ordinary university graduate civil.However, the rank of lieutenant can receive only one soldier who served in the army.Similarly, soldiers assigned to the rank of lieutenant.For junior officers are soldiers in the rank of captain.
interesting fact is that this position of the stars on the shoulder straps, and not the number of distinguished junior officers from the rank and file of the army representatives.Here are some examples.Shoulder straps Lieutenant contain only two stars, while a soldier of a lower rank - senior warrant officer - three.However, an officer with an asterisk are located next door and across the shoulder strap.While, as in the ensign - in a line along.At first lieutenant - three stars, they are arranged in a triangle, the distance of stars on their epaulettes - the same.The captain, in turn, four stars.Three of them - in the form of a triangle, and another of the same size captain's epaulets accommodate in an area that is closer to the collar uniforms.Junior lieutenant has shoulder straps with one star in the middle part of the ring (a little closer to the edge relative to the center).
soldier who received the rank of major, can classify themselves as senior officers.An interesting fact is that the words spoken in addition to the handling of military rank in the reserve, may coincide with those that are used when referring to the ordinary.Captain of ground forces in the Navy Russia complies with similar sounding title, but added the phrase "third grade".Above Major - Lieutenant Colonel (Navy - Captain of the second rank), and then - Colonel (in the Navy - the captain of the first rank).
When compared insignia for junior officers and rank and file of the army played a decisive role position of the stars on the shoulder straps, then the senior officer category of decisive importance is the size of these elements.Here are some examples.Junior lieutenant on the shoulder straps have one star.Superior it a few steps in the rank Major also has one star.But they differ in size.Major shoulder straps decorated with a larger star.Similarly, correlate and insignia of lieutenant colonel.Both - two stars.But a senior officer, they are much more.
exactly on the same basis can be discerned straps colonel of the Russian army and a similar distinction at the lieutenant.Both - three stars.Junior officer is those that are much smaller.The distance of stars on the epaulets same.By the way, the captain straps are unique.Only they are four stars.More or the same is not present at one of the officers.As for the comparison of military epaulettes of various ranks in the Navy, there are exactly the same rules.
At the top of the hierarchy of ranks in the army of the Russian Federation - the highest officers.The first stage takes Major General (Navy corresponds to Rear Admiral).That the officers commanding divisions, whose number exceeds 150 thousand. Soldiers.This is followed by Lieutenant General (and this despite the fact that the subordinate officers Lt. Gen. more important).Historically, that Lieutenant-General took over the functions of a higher level (for example, some of those who are in charge of General of the Army).In some cases, the representative of the senior officers of the armed forces of Russia may be appointed to the General Staff and the Defense Ministry.As a rule, this category of soldiers wearing the rank of colonel.In the Navy, they correspond to their ranks.The officer at the highest level rank in the armed forces of the Russian Federation - is the General of the Army, Navy - Admiral.
to properly distinguish between the title of senior officers from the junior and senior, must take into account a lot of nuances: the location of stars on their epaulettes, their size and even color.There are options that difficult to make a mistake, for example, if the shoulder straps is the colonel.How many stars on his epaulets, we have already mentioned above - three.The same number and a senior lieutenant, but their size is less.Both the military they settle triangle - more of this arrangement is not none.There is a high probability to make a mistake in recognizing cuts to major general.They have one star.Major shoulder straps also contain one single star.The same situation and with the attributes of the uniform of second lieutenant.Unmistakably senior officer can recognize by the absence of his epaulets other elements (strips).Another example - Lieutenant-General.Shoulder straps of the military in the rank of the two stars contain along.Just like the ensign.But the senior officer of the stars more.A similar example - Colonel-General.Shoulder straps can hold its three stars - the same as the senior warrant officer.The difference - all the same size.
police chase in Russian
ranking of titles and use as a mark of distinction cuts applied not only in the Russian army, but also in law enforcement agencies, including the police.Due to the similarity of certain types of activity - military and law enforcement, the principles of the stars and other elements on the shoulder straps to the police in general, similar to those that are characteristic of the Russian army.
police rank and file do not have any items on the shoulder straps.Exception - the insignia of the cadets, which is present the letter "K".Above the rank and file in the police ranks tables - junior commanding staff presented sergeants, petty officers and warrant officers.A key element in the signs of the differences associated with these titles -'s stripes and stars.Sergeant, regardless of the level, no stars.Younger - two thin's stripes, Sergeant - three older - one wide.
Police Sergeant has shoulder straps with a broad longitudinal stripe.Insignia Ensign characterized by the presence of stars: a conventional two of them, the older - three.They are located in a row.Middle commanding staff presented titles from junior police lieutenant to captain.Their straps are characterized by the presence of "clearance" - the red stripe running down the middle.There Stars: the younger one lieutenant, a conventional - two of the older - three.Shoulder straps police captain have four stars.Next in rank - the senior commanding staff.Shoulder straps this category include two police officers "clearance."Ranks differ in the number of stars.On Major epaulets - one.Lieutenant Colonel - two.Shoulder straps colonel contain three stars.Top brass of the police force - it is the generals.They wear uniforms without "gaps" with the stars larger than that of the average composition of the officers.In Major-General - one star.