After the collapse of the vast country, which occupied the sixth of the land, formed by a plurality of independent states that are immediately faced with many difficulties.And even some of the world refuses to recognize.This is the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.It is inhabited by courageous people who are not just challenged the whole "civilized" humanity, but withstood the pressure response.But history did not all recognized state is quite interesting.His appearance on the world map due not only to the will of the population, but also previous events.It so happens that this area since the eighteenth century, went to the Russian Empire.But let's delve a little deeper into the past.
how to configure area
history of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is not much different from that of the adjacent land.In ancient times, these places were sparsely populated.Basically lived here Slavic and Turkic tribes.At the time, the territory was part of Kievan Rus', then it was included in the Galicia-Volyn principality.In the XIV century the land passed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.Since the inhabitants were few, the transition from the one jurisdiction to another is not particularly affect people.Only in the eighteenth century, after the data has been put in place of the Russian Empire, the changes began to occur.Caring for the protection of the borders, the state encouraged the migration of citizens in these places.The population was multi-ethnic.Among its inhabitants met Russian and Bulgarians, Germans and Greeks, and of course, the Moldovans.After the revolution in the territory was established Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.It was part of the Ukrainian SSR.And only in 1939, when Romania was forced to return the union of the formerly occupied territories, it was formed Moldavian SSR, which includes data and land.To understand the reasons for which people living in the territory, did not wish to remain a part of the new Moldova, it is important to know its history.
After the formation of the Moldavian authorities began to send experts here from the Soviet republics.Largely rebuilt in the current territory of Ukrainians and Russian.For political reasons it is here to create basic industries.By the time of its formation in its current form Dnestr Moldavian Republic gave 40% of GDP, 90% of the electricity generated.In addition, it was based 14th allied army, of course, was created by the appropriate infrastructure.It turns out that the current Dnestr Moldavian Republic to concentrate on its territory nearly the whole industrial potential of the country, formed after the collapse of the USSR.
official, but not recognized by the formation of a new state
mishap happened when our previously huge country disintegrated into fifteen parts.That is, this division has been recognized by the UN, but not people.Since Moldova has historically been formed from two very different territories, its population was divided into "camps".The center-piece is the area.Only in Transdniestria different opinion.Moldavian Parliament adopted the "Declaration of Independence", which repeals the law on the formation of a republic within the Union.But the same act as if freed from the territory of Transdniestria government relations with the new country, as it was included in the Moldavian parliament canceled its decision.In Tiraspol did not panic and proclaimed the fifth November 1991 PMR (full name - Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic) that their understanding was historically quite logical.
Administrative - territorial division
Republic of Transnistria is a unitary, consists of seven administrative units.They include five districts and two cities subordinated to the republic.It - Bender and Tiraspol.Dnestr Moldavian Republic (pictured above) has its own state symbols.The flag is a red flag with a green stripe in the middle.In the corner are crossed hammer and sickle.In this area it is located on the eight cities and towns hundred forty three villages and four railway stations.Part of settlements under Moldovan administration.In 2011, the population exceeded five hundred thousand thirty-five nationalities.Most people (40%) consider themselves Moldovans, Ukrainians - 26%, Russian - 24%.Government TMR uses three official languages understood by the representatives of the main nationalities.The main religion - Christianity, although work and other groups of the faithful.
Dnestr Moldavian Republic (card it has in the article) is a fairly narrow strip of land sandwiched between Moldova and Ukraine.It has no outlets to the sea.The area of the country - 4163 square kilometers.For the record: This is the tenth part of the former MSSR.
DMR President works in the city of Tiraspol, the capital of the country.There are all the government agencies.The terrain is flat, sometimes there beam.Land holdings consist principally of black soil.The climate is temperate continental, precipitation is not enough, but agriculture is not harmful, as the territory of a large river flows - Dniester.In addition, and minerals it has the republic.PMR is developing glass sands, deposits of gravel and limestone building.There are ceramic clay.The forests that are located on the slopes of the Dniester River, are found wild boar, partridge, hare, otter, fox, ermine.The rivers supply fish in ponds there and sturgeon.
conflict with Moldova
self-proclaimed state was not considered a major part of the former MSSR, which, according to the UN definition, it was the legal successor.The conflict for a long time trying to resolve.Moldovan leadership was established a peace plan under which the PMR was formed with its "asymmetrical federation".In fact, the document rejected the independence of the territory, which had officially become part of Moldova, albeit with broad powers.Tiraspol rejected the proposal because it was based on the principle of demilitarization, it is unacceptable for the population.There was a threat of serious armed conflict.
Currently, security is supported by the peacekeepers, represented by Russian, Moldovan and local military.Despite constant negotiations under the auspices of the OSCE, to reduce tension of the conflict is impossible to achieve.The last wave was in the spring of 2014, when the local population appealed to the President of Russia for resolving the issue of accession of Russia to the PMR.This event happened after the Crimean spring.Inspired by the people felt that they had a chance to connect with their historical homeland.Back in 2006, ninety-seven percent of citizens voted not only for independence from Moldova, but also for further integration with the Russian Federation.At the same time voted seventy-eight percent of voters.But the referendum "civilized community" recognized undemocratic.
The country has its own Constitution, which determines the order and form of its existence.According to the basic law, the president of the PMR selected by direct vote.Elections are held every five years.There are certain restrictions that apply to candidates.In this position, can claim only a citizen of the Republic who has reached thirty-five years, more than ten of them in this country.Now president of PMR - Shevchuk Evhen.He has a predecessor, who has worked in this position for twenty years.This Igor Smirnov, who have borne a lot of difficulties while living in the country is not normal.The last presidential elections were held in 2011.
Despite the fact that in the country there are large industrial enterprises, income person, they do not give.Among the problems referred to in the first state status.It is not recognized that prevents forge economic ties and to participate in large projects.Production companies realized on the territory of Ukraine and Russia.Last PMR has continued support.Thus, many sources point to the ever-growing indebtedness of the unrecognized state of the gas (400 percent of GDP).Currency Transnistria - the Transnistrian ruble.It began to produce in 2005.In circulation are banknotes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 rubles.There are coins of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, namely 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents.The banking system, as well as in other countries, a two-tier.The first - a national institution, the second - the commercial.Currency of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is quoted only in its territory.It is connected with the same status of an unrecognized state.
Republic is trying to attract investors.For this special program.This policy contributes to a great location and well-developed transport structure of the state.In addition, there are a number of towns that have a rich history.The main of them - Kamenka, where there are many architectural monuments.Among them: churches, terraces and wine cellars.Residents enjoy showing visitors the estate of Field Marshal P. Wittgenstein, part of which is preserved in the city.The TMR (photo) is a nature reserve - "Iagorlic."At present, the possibility of development of green tourism in the country, for which there is sufficient capacity.Coming recommend necessarily see the Church of St. Paraskeva Srpska, which is located in the village of Valea Adîncă, the museum complex "Bendery Fortress."Residents are justifiably proud of paleontological complex "Kolkotovaya bar", is a natural monument of world importance.
PMR government pays close attention to the issues of education and health.A nine-year education is compulsory.Total in the country operates one hundred eighty-four school (six - private).In the thirty-three teaching in the Moldovan language, in three - in Ukrainian, in other - in Russian.The PMR three state university, in addition, there are branches of Russian and Ukrainian universities.For example, the university (basic school) eleven thousand students enrolled.Young people can receive higher education in Russia, which recognizes their diploma.Healthcare operates through public funding.According to statistics, here we have one hundred and twenty and one hundred beds of health workers for every ten thousand people.There are service centers of certain categories of people, including mothers and women with children, disabled war veterans.
State exports own products and raw materials.The latter include cement, gravel, sand.More on export products are iron and steel, engineering, energy and textiles.Most of the products are consumed the Russian Federation and Ukraine.But there are also partners from abroad.It Syria and Turkey, Serbia and Romania, only about a hundred countries.Importation of the PMR Natural gas, the raw material for metallurgy, food processing oil.The country produces enough components for engineering, they also have to be imported.
In addition, some food products are imported from abroad (mainly meat products).The main suppliers of the company are Russia and Kazakhstan, Moldova, Germany, Ukraine and Italy.The government is of concern that the imports considerably exceed exports from the country.This is especially true of food.A program to develop their own capacities, natural conditions are favorable.
The TMR has its own armed forces, created solely to protect its territory from external aggression.Military Doctrine of the Republic is represented as a purely defensive.Unfortunately, the army is going to reflect aggression nearest neighbor - Moldova.The structure consists of ground troops, border, internal and Air Force.In addition, set up volunteer Cossack units.Commander of the armed forces, President of the PMR.Republic declared itself a neutral state.None of which blocks is not included and is not planning to go.The army is recruited on the basis of universal conscription and the formation of Cossack - on a voluntary basis.In order to de-escalate tension in the region Transnistria has repeatedly appealed to the Republic of Moldova to the proposal for the demarcation of borders and the beginning of disarmament.Awareness on this issue was reached.The republic is operational group of Russian troops.Its main purpose - the protection of the old arsenals belonging to another of the Soviet Army.