Sudan grass (or Sudanese sorghum, Sudan grass) - high-yield crops.It grows in ideal conditions up to three meters, forming one of the root 120 to the stems.With proper farming techniques of cultivation gives the record among fodder annual grass crops.In the form of silage, hay, freshly cut green mass, it is used for fattening cattle.
Sudan grass: biological features
Sorghum sudanense belongs to the genus Sorghum.Powerful fibrous root system can grow to 2.5 meters in depth and breadth of 75 cm. Downy white cylindrical stalk filled with spongy parenchyma.Not all varieties are high.There is a compact plant height less than one meter with a small (up to 12 shoots) and secondary (12-25), tillering.Different varieties also form a bush:
- half upright.
preferred mow slaboraskidistye erect shrubs, so the Sudanese sorghum with such characteristics is most common.In the tropics grows very high Sudanese grass, a photo of which is amazing.In Russia, the most cultivated varieties are more compact: the grass Mironovskaya 8, 12, 100 Kinel, Hades, Hercules 3 Chernomorka, Volgograd 77, Azimut, Brody 2, 151 Innovator, Severyanka, Novosibirsk 84, Kamyshinskaya 51 Zonalskaya 6 and others.
Sudan grass as hay and greens is a good nutritious food.The green mass of protein - 3%, protein - 4.4%, sugar - 7,9-9,1%.Sudanese advantageously mixed with legumes, in particular - alfalfa.Such mixtures are more saturated in calcium, protein, nitrogen-free extractive substances.The abundance of thick green mass, resistance to grazing, and the ability to grow rapidly (for the season - 4-5 times) make one of the best Sudan grass pasture grasses.
nutritional quality of hay depend on mowing time.If it is harvested in the phase of the buttonhole in the product save a lot of crude protein - 14-16%.Even more protein (14,2-18,9%) continue if Sudan grass to mow in the phase of booting.Silage is recommended to harvest when grain is poured.By the way, silage nutritionally comparable to corn.
Technology of cultivation of Sudan grass
for sowing seeds optimal precursors are vegetables, cereals crops (especially winter).Mandatory pre-treatment of weeds.Siberian Research Institute studies have shown that in the conditions of forest-steppe of decent seed yield is obtained after steam formation perennials corn.
It is important to treat the soil, taking into account the type and zoning.Productivity of all the basic treatment is carried out in the autumn.This will help to nourish the ground moisture lingering autumn rains and snow.In Western Siberia (steppe zone) in the fall deep (25 cm) plowed field in the spring to keep the moisture in the two tracks are teeth harrows.Alignment, and rolling fields planners before and after planting provides friendly shoots.
exception of wetlands to soil is not demanding Sudan grass.Biological features provide a good harvest, even in the brackish lands.The best preceding deemed peas pelyushka, vetch, alfalfa, cabbage, potatoes.It is also useful to grow legumes, together with the Sudanese sorghum.
faster held the first and second mowing, the big green mass narastet subsequent 2-3 cut system.Recommended to remove the hay mower conditioners.Rolled stems podvyalivayut faster and better, accelerating the natural drying.
Seeds of Sudan grass responsive to seedbed preparation.Etching alternated with warm air heating, processing microfertilizers.Seeds get a biological impulse to germinate in unison, saturated with trace elements with a minimum of fertilizer.
One method of activation of biochemical and physiological processes - spraying before planting special solutions containing boron (can replace Zn) and manganese.In 2 liters of water was dissolved usual 15-18 g and 6-9 g of potassium permanganate salts, boron or zinc.This volume is enough to treat one quintal of seeds.For uniform distribution of the seeds carefully repeatedly stirred.Before sowing, they should be dry.
more modern method of seedbed preparation - vernalization.The container is poured 20 liters of water poured quintal of seeds.Wait until the seeds are completely absorb water.Then they take out and formed into small piles, keeping in this condition 8 days in the dark at 20-30 ˚C.To prevent decay, mass regularly Ted shovel.It is necessary to monitor the speed of germination.If the seeds hatch too fast, raked piles.Vernalization especially effective for seed crops.
only in warm soil (+10 ˚C) sown Sudan grass.Seeding rate varies depending on the method of sowing.If a member method of solid - within 25-30 kg per 1 hectare.When in wide method in arid regions the rate of half - 10-15 kg.With plenty of moisture produces mechanized seed placement at a depth of 3-5 cm. Of dried, light soils the seeds are embedded deeper - 6-8 cm. If Sudan grass is sown in a mixture with other crops, the seeding rate is reduced by 15-25%.
Seedbed preparation laborious.If you skip one of the steps will fall druzhnost seedling, tillering, yield.The procedure is:
- deep plowing.
- Early spring harrowing.
- Two-time sowing cultivation.
- pre-sowing soil compacting.
- Posleposevnoe packing of soil.
At the time of fertilizers increase crop yields.Best rates on 1 hectare: 20-30 kg of potash, phosphate 30-45 kg, 30-45 kg of nitrogen fertilizer.
addition to an abundant harvest of green fodder supply, Sudan grass beneficial effect on the soil, suppress weeds.Thanks to powerful fibrous roots culture enhances breathability and moisture capacity of soil, loosens them, making easier structures, it drains an excess of moisture.Loosening the soil efficient grass breathable, beneficial soil microorganisms and worms reproduce better, accelerating the processing of humus.The plants themselves are less sick, productivity increases.
ability Sudan grass grow on saline soils allows to include crop rotation unsuitable for other crops marshes.In places where the erosion progresses, it is also useful to sow this herb with powerful thick roots that hold soil particles from the weathering and leaching.
But there are nuances.Like corn, Sudan grass pulls from the ground a lot of minerals, impoverishing it.We solve problems together with bean planting annuals.High-quality dressing fertilizers also restores the microbiological balance.