Agriculture unimaginable without livestock.Here we can distinguish goat, poultry, horses, cattle (dairy, meat, dairy and meat), sheep, rabbit, pig farming, beekeeping, dog, and other less common industry.And if a man decided to take livestock, then he needs to start to think what he will feed his farm.For this purpose, it is suitable fodder plants.They can grow on their own and not to spend money on the purchase of products for animals.That's about plants that can be food, Now and will be discussed.
Let's start with the most famous.
Forage crops.The list of plants that are considered in the article
- Stern watermelon.
- Feed pumpkin.
- Stern zucchini.
fodder crops - is, above all, watermelon, squash and pumpkin.
It is an annual plant of the gourd family.The weight of its fruit is 10 to 30 kg.Cattle fed these fruits in fresh or as silage.Transom watermelon contains proteins (0.3 kg per 100 kg of product), carbohydrates which are easily digestible, i.e. glucose, fructose and sucrose, folic acid, pectin (0,36-0,75 kg per 100 kg of product), as well asvitamins D, A, C, B, and iron.
This plant also belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae is an annual.Fetal weight up to 30 kg.
The fruits of this plant have a lot of sugar (12 kg per 100 kg of the product), proteins (0.4 kg to 100 kg of fruit), vitamins E, PP, C and provitamin A.
This product is exceptionally suitable as feedfor cows, pigs and chickens.At first, it increases the fat content of milk and increases the number and the last at a food pumpkin begin to carry more eggs.
Melons fodder - it is also a squash.They ripen earlier than the above-mentioned plants, which is an undoubted advantage of them.Moreover, they can even feed the animals immature, pre-steamed or shredded.
Courgettes - melons fodder crops that contain protein in an amount of 0,7-1 kg per 100 kg of product.These materials have not only the fruits but also in the tops of the plant (0.8 kg per 100 kg).
this group primarily include rye, barley and oats.All grains fodder crops have a number of drawbacks.This low content of calcium required for normal development of the animal, as well as the relatively low digestibility of the proteins contained in the grains.
100 kg of grain of this plant contains 10.1 kg of protein, fat 2.3 kg, 1.9 kg of fat, 66.1 kg BEV (nitrogen-free extractives), 1.8 kg of ash, as well as 16kg of water.
Rye animals do not like to eat in large quantities.It is connected with a tart taste, which it has.Also eating too much may cause rye disorders of the digestive system.This is particularly true of freshly harvested grain.Therefore, in the diet of cattle or swine amount eaten rye should not exceed 30% of the total food.
addition, should take into account the factor that the beans of this plant contain a fairly small amount of digestible protein.This must be compensated by the presence of protein in a diet rich products such as these may be leguminous feed crops.
100 kg of barley grains contain 10.8 kg of protein, fat 4.8 kg, 2.2 kg of fat, 65.6 kg BEV, 2.8 kg of ash and 13 kg of water.
This plant has a lot of disadvantages.They can be ranked low in calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, as well as insufficient protein content.The amount of fiber, on the contrary, increased, so this diet should only be used in combination with products that are low in this matter (wheat, corn).
However, despite all the negative aspects, barley is widely used as feed for farm animals, as it helps to make better quality meat and milk.
young piglets to give the grain of this plant can be well-done, and pigs - in the ground.Dairy cows are often fed a barley bran or flour.
100 kg of oats contained 9.1 kg of protein, fiber 10.4 kg, 4.9 kg of fat, 57.3 kg BEV, 4 kg of ash and 13 kg of water.
film grain oats contain very large amounts of fiber, which decreases the digestibility of the product.
this standard is considered to be food for the horses.The diet of cattle and pigs it could be 40%, poultry - 30%.However, it can not give milk cows during the production of oil, as well as pigs in the final fattening stage.
Legumes as feed for farm animals
Bean fodder, names which are known to all - is soy and lupine.
grains of each of these plants have a large number of proteins.This is especially true of soybeans.
chemical composition of beans about this.100 kg soy proteins have 33.6 kg, 5.7 kg of cellulose, 17.4 kg fat BEV 26.8 kg, 4.6 kg fly ash and 11 kg of water.100 kg of lupine protein contained 27.5 kg, 5.3 kg of fat, fiber 12.8 kg, 35.8 kg BEV, 2.7 kg fly ash and 14 kg of water.
Forage crops listed above, are valuable not only high in protein, but plenty of amino acids, B vitamins and ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron and zinc.
But in spite of their nutritional value and benefits, the percentage of legumes in the diet should not exceed 25%, since an excessive amount of this product is causing problems with the gastrointestinal tract, including bloating, and can also cause miscarriage in pregnant females.
most common and frequently used plant is a legume forage soybeans.It has a large number of proteins that are close to the animal as well as amino acids which provide the normal metabolism of livestock.
use these beans as food for birds is recommended, but pre subjecting them to heat treatment.Note, however, that while the use of too high temperature leads to a decrease in product quality.Cattle can be given raw soy beans.
Lupin exist three varieties: white, yellow and blue.Yellow and white varieties are sweet, they differ from the blue lower content of alkaloids (0,002-0,12 kg per 100 kg of the product, in contrast to the 3.87 kg in blue).The greatest amount of protein among the three species has yellow lupine.In addition, all varieties of this plant contain essential amino acids that the body can not produce on their own animals.These beans also contains vitamins and minerals.
best option - the use of lupine beans as feed for pigs, which is present in the diet of a lot of potatoes.The disadvantage of this forage crop can be considered a high fiber content, which should be taken into account when calculating the amount of food in the diet of farm animals.The menu piglets lupine beans should not exceed 18-20% of the food, adult pigs - no more than 12%.
When deciding to enter the animal feed in the diet should also pay attention to that because it contained alkaloids it gives milk and butter bitter taste.Also intake of these substances in large quantities may cause digestive disorders.To prevent these negative effects by using pretreatment beans.To get rid of alkaloid lupine grain to soak in cold water, then steamed for an hour and rinse again.Processed food should be used within one day, otherwise it will deteriorate.
However, the shortcomings of this plant is related to the content of alkaloids, is now eliminated by breeding varieties of grain which almost do not contain these substances.