Mints - a production type enterprise, the main activity of which is the minting of coins in the production of orders, medals and other distinctive symbols.History of enterprises out of the distant past, during the onset of monetary systems.Today mints are high-tech enterprises of the type that produce coins at the request of the State Bank.All manufacturers are working in highly classified operation.
Types of mints and a bit of history
Mints can be public, which carry out the orders of the Central Bank.There are similar private organizations specializing in the production of awards and medals, badges and license plates.For each type of enterprise peculiar to the presence of their unique stamp to be applied to all the coins.Membership Coin of State and Territorial type is determined using the mark.The first mention of this category of production is dated to the 5th century BC.First there were the mints in Athens.From the 2nd century BC production was moved from the Temple of Theseus in the temple of Juno.Even after 115 years from the birth of Christ I was in the courtyard of the Roman Coliseum.After the appearance of plants in Rome, Lyon, Constantinople, in Sicily, and Aquileia are spread around the world.
first courtyard in Russia: the assumption of historians
very difficult to imagine what it was in the past a mint.Photos at the time not to do, sketches has survived.There is only guesswork.There is evidence that suggests that businesses were transferred into the hands of private individuals, the activities of which further implemented strict supervision.People involved in minting coins are exempt from taxes and duties.They had the privilege in respect of the ban on the prosecution for all acts other than murder, robbery and fraud.Historical records indicate that the earliest mints on the territory of modern Russia in the past worked in the Greek cities of the time that Theodosius and Gorgippia, today known as Anapa.Traces of these productions have been seen in Derbent and Tmutarakan.
first yard in Moscow: the theory and speculation
organized coinage in Moscow, according to preliminary estimates, and research began during the reign of Ivan the Don (1362-1389 gg.).No information on this court and its location does not exist in historical notes, the fact that his presence was established solely on the basis of the analysis of the coins of the time.First Moscow money were decorated with Russian and Arabic inscriptions on them were recorded numerous technologically made Stamp connection.
references from history
Mints Russia, the existence of which is officially recorded, founded in the 14-15th centuries.At that time, the country led John III.Coinage was carried out not only in Moscow but also in cities such as Pskov, Novgorod and Tver.In the period from the 16th to the 17th century coinage was entrusted münzmeister.This practice was common in Europe.There are also reports that in the 15th century in Moscow functioned not only state-owned enterprises, but also the individual financial workshops princes kind Kalita.The first recorded "Sovereign" yard came after one of the first monetary reform Elena Glinsky in the period from 1535 by 1538.The enterprise was located in the street Varvarka.This event marked the beginning of the unification of Russian monetary system.Mints Russia for many centuries ago produced uniform in weight and appearance of the coins, which were required to receive the entire territory of the Russian state.Embossing is carried out manually, and served as the material for the silver wire.The wire is initially cut into equal sized pieces and then pressed them.Then began a manual ejection of images and inscriptions on smooth workpieces.
centralization of cash management
In 1595 the agency was formed under the name Money orders.The organization carries out control of the coinage on behalf of the state.This step was the foundation of all centralized cash management.All mints, who at that time worked in the country, received the official designation, which they had to mark their products.
- Moscow courtyard - "M" or "Defense".
- Novgorod yard - "B.BUT. "
- Pskov yard - "SS".
Coin enterprise Russia 15-20 centuries
answer to the question of how to define the Mint, was easier to give after each enterprise has appeared crown markings.Mention may be made following the production, which contributed to the coinage:
- Red courtyard, or Chinese.It is located near the Kitai-Gorod wall.The obverse and reverse of the coins became a symbol of "CD", "SSC", "MM".Production work in the period from 1697 to 1979.The yard produced gold, silver and copper coins with different national type rating.We do and special coins.Mint issued any funds for the Baltic provinces and Prussia.
- Kadashevsky yard in Kadashevskaya Sloboda.It also called Hamovnym, Zamoskvoretsky, Navy and Admiralty.The obverse and reverse put a sign "MM" and "MD", "MDZ" and "DMD", "M" and "Moscow", "Mint Mint."Production work in the period from 1701 to 1736.I have the release of gold, copper and silver coins of different values.Copper coins were produced in a specialized branch of production since 1704.
- Quay copper courtyard in the Kremlin.The coins were minted such signs as "ND" and "NDZ" "NDM".He worked from 1699 to 1727, issued coins of all denominations.
- St. Petersburg, or Imperial, the Mint was founded on the territory of the fortress in 1724.Symbols on the coins - a "St. Petersburg" and "JMP", "SP" and "SM".He worked up to the moment when the money supply has been discontinued tsarist government.He took an active part in the bronze coins minted.
- yard Yekaterinburg issued coins with the symbols "EM" and "Ekaterinburg".He worked in the period from 1727 to 1876.Issue of coins supplemented manufacturing circles for other mints.
It is worth to mention such companies as Imperial Mint and Anninsky ("AM"), Kolyvan ("KM" and "Kolyvan copper") and Suzunsky ("CM") Sestrovetsky ("CM") and Kolpinsky ("KM"), Tauride (" TM ") and Tiflis, Warsaw (" VM »,« MW ») and Helsingfors.
production that did not use their badges
mint mark allows you to determine where and when the coin was issued for a specific denomination.However, in the history of Russia were widespread yards that did not use their own insignia, and affix the stamp on the monetary units of other industries.This bank courtyard factory Rosenkranz, the Paris court and Strasbourg, Birmingham and Izhora, the Brussels court and Avestsky.Moreover, some mints, such as red or St. Petersburg, could use in their work badges Kadashevsky and promenade Copper court and other similar organizations, which significantly complicated the work of historians.
Coinage in the RSFSR and the USSR in the RSFSR
determine which Mint release the money helped designations:
- «AG" - the initials of Hartmann, who was at that time head of the monetary redistribution until 1923.
- «PL" - the initials Latysheva, chief since 1924.
- «TR" - the initials of Thomas Ross, chief monetary redistribution London court.
mint mark during the period of the Soviet Union was of two types:
- «LMD" or "L" - Leningrad Mint.
- «MMD" or "M" - Moscow Mint.
This sign has performed and performs a kind of symbol of belonging to a particular coin production.The symbol can be in the form of letters, and can be presented in the format of the monogram, drawing or sign.
In modern Russia, the coins can be found the following notation: "SSC" and "SPMD" - who speak about their release or to Moscow or to the St. Petersburg Mint.From 1991 it was decided to put the money signs such as "M", "L", "SSC" and "LMD".Since the period of 1997 - is "M", "C-P" and "MMD", "SPMD".The last two characters on the money deposited in the form of a monogram.Coins Russia, since 1997, decorated with the words "M", "C-P", "SSC" and "SPMD" format monograms.On the small coins with denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 cents a sign can be seen on the right side under the hoof.Signs of "M" and "S-P" on coins denominated 1, 2 and 5 rubles is located under the right paw of the eagle.Monogram "SPMD" can be seen on commemorative banknotes in denominations of 10 Russian rubles.It is located on the obverse, just below the inscription "10 rubles."
How is the issue of coins in 2015
Central Bank of Russia, since 1992, each year it issues commemorative coins as precious and non-precious format.Moreover, systematically carried out the issue of investment coins minted which are completely made of precious metals.At the same time, as before, on each of them bear a mint.Minting process conducted within the main emission and planned activities during the previous year.Roadmap coins approved by the management of the Central Bank and then placed on the official website of the latter.Each collector coin issued either Moscow or in St. Petersburg Mint.This makes it easier to answer the question of how to determine the Mint.Coins designed with special characters, which are now only 4. The Central Bank of the country has no right to distribute the collection coins among individuals.Sberbank is the main distributor.Coins originally bought up the first wave of speculators who later sell them at an inflated price.
government's plans for 2015
In accordance with the plan of emissions in 2015 will be carried out chasing the two types of investment currency.During the year, will be produced 73 precious commemorative coins and 12 commemorative coins of base metal.In the future, the issue is the continuation of a series begun earlier: "City of Military Glory" and "Famous people of Russia."The most expensive coin in the history of the country dates back to 1999 and has a nominal value of 5 cents.Its exact value is unknown, but it far exceeds the sum of 100 thousand rubles in the open auctions.These types of coins are valued especially numismatists.