Ecosystems - a common natural complexes, which are formed by the totality of living organisms and their habitats.The study of these groups engaged in science and ecology.
term "ecosystem" appeared in 1935. Using his proposed English ecologist A. Arthur Tansley.Natural or natural-anthropogenic complex in which both living and indirect components are closely connected through the exchange of materials and distribution of energy flow - all this is included in the concept of "ecosystem".Types of ecosystems while there are different.These basic functional unit of the biosphere sub-divided into separate groups and studying environmental science.
On our planet there are different ecosystems.Types of ecosystems classified in a certain way.However, to link together all the diversity of the biosphere of these units is not possible.That is why there are several classifications of ecological systems.For example, differentiate their origin.It:
- Natural (natural) ecosystems .These complexes are those in which the circulation of substances is carried out without any human intervention.
- artificial (man-made) ecosystem. They are created by man, and can exist only in its immediate support.
Natural complexes that exist without human intervention, have their own internal classification.The following types of natural ecosystems on the basis of energy:
- are completely dependent on solar radiation;
- receiving energy not only from the heavenly body, but also from other natural sources.
first of these two ecosystems is unproductive.However, these natural systems are essential for our planet, because there are huge areas and affect the climate, purify large volumes of air, etc.
Natural complexes that receive power from several sources, are the most productive.
Artificial unit biosphere
different and anthropogenic ecosystems.Types of ecosystems in this group include:
- agro-ecosystems, which result from the conduct of human agriculture;
- tehnoekosistemy arising from the development of the industry;
- urbanoekosistemy arising from the establishment of settlements.
These types of man-made ecosystems, created with the direct participation of man.
variety of natural components of the biosphere
Types and ecosystems of natural origin are different.And ecologists distinguish them on the basis of climatic and environmental conditions of their existence.So, there are three groups and a number of different units of the biosphere.
main types of ecosystems, natural origin:
Ground natural complexes
The diversity of terrestrial ecosystem types include:
- arctic and alpine tundra;
- coniferous boreal forests;
- deciduous tracts of temperate zone;
- savannas and tropical zlakovniki;
- chaparali, is the area with dry summers and rainy winters;
- Desert (as shrub and herbaceous);
- semi-evergreen rainforests are located in areas with pronounced dry and wet seasons;
- tropical evergreen rain forests.
addition to the main types of ecosystems exist and transient.It is forest-tundra, semidesert, and so on. D.
reasons for the existence of various types of natural complexes
On what basis are placed on our planet different natural ecosystems?Ecosystem types of natural origin are in one or another zone depending on rainfall and air temperature.We know that the climate in different parts of the globe has significant differences.This is not the same, and the annual amount of precipitation.It can range from 0 to 250 millimeters or more.This rainfall is either uniformly for all seasons, or fall in the main share to a specific wet period.Different on our planet, and the average annual temperature.It can have values from negative values or reach thirty-eight degrees.Various and constancy of heating of air masses.It may or may not have a significant difference in the course of the year, such as at the equator and is constantly changing.
Characteristics of natural complexes
Species diversity of natural ecosystems, terrestrial group leads to the fact that each of them has its own distinctive features.So, in the tundra, which is located north of the taiga, there is a very cold climate.For this area is characterized by below average temperatures and changing polar day and night.Summer in this region lasts only a few weeks.This land has time to thaw a small meter depth.Precipitation falls on the tundra at least 200-300 mm during the year.Because of the climatic conditions, these lands are poor vegetation, provided slow-growing lichen, moss and creeping shrubs or dwarf cranberries and blueberries.Sometimes you can find dwarf birch.
not is rich and fauna.He is represented by reindeer, small burrowing mammals and predators such as weasel, fox and weasel.The world of birds is represented by a polar owl, snow bunting and plovers.Insects in the tundra in the majority - Diptera species.Tundra ecosystem is very vulnerable due to poor ability to recover.
great variety differs Taiga, located in northern America and Eurasia.For this ecosystem is characterized by cold and long winter and numerous precipitation in the form of snow.The flora is represented by evergreen coniferous arrays, which grows fir and spruce, pine and larch.Wildlife - moose and badgers, bears and squirrels, sable and wolverine, wolves and lynx, fox and mink.For the taiga is characterized by numerous lakes and marshes.
broad-leaved forests the following ecosystem.Forms of this type of ecosystem found in the eastern US, East Asia and Western Europe.This is the area of seasonal climate where winter temperatures drop below zero, and in the course of the year falls from 750 to 1500 mm of rainfall.The flora of this ecosystem is represented by deciduous trees such as beech, oak, ash and lime.There are shrubs and powerful herbal layer.The fauna is represented by bears and moose, lynx and foxes, squirrels and shrews.They live in this ecosystem, owls and woodpeckers, thrushes, and falcons.
steppe temperate zones are located in Eurasia and North America.Their counterparts are tussoki in New Zealand, as well as the pampas of South America.The climate in these areas is characterized by seasonality.In summer, the air is heated by the warm temperate to very high values.Winter temperatures are negative.During the year, there are 250 to 750 millimeters of precipitation.The flora is represented mainly by steppe turf grasses.Among animals there are bison and antelope, antelopes, and ground squirrels, rabbits and marmots, wolves and hyenas.
Chaparali located in the Mediterranean, as well as in California, Georgia, Mexico and the southern coast of Australia.This mild temperate climate zone, where the falls from 500 to 700 millimeters of rain during the year.From the vegetation here are shrubs and trees with evergreen leaves rigid, such as wild pistachio, laurel and others.
These ecological systems, as savannahs are located in East and Central Africa, South America and Australia.Most of them are situated in South India.This zone of the hot and dry climate, which falls during the year from 250 to 750 mm of rain.The vegetation is mostly - Cereal grassy, just something where rare deciduous trees (palm trees, baobabs and acacias).The fauna is represented zebras and antelopes, giraffes and rhinos, leopards and lions, vultures and so on. D. Many in these parts of blood-sucking insects such as the tsetse fly.
Deserts are found in parts of Africa, in northern Mexico, and so on. D. The climate is dry, with rainfall less than 250 mm per year.Days in the deserts hot and the nights are cold.Vegetation is represented by cacti and sparse shrubs with extensive root systems.Among the wildlife are common gophers and jerboas, antelopes and wolves.It is a fragile ecosystem that is easily destroyed by water and wind erosion.
semi-evergreen tropical deciduous forests are found in Central America and Asia.In these areas there is interchangeability of dry and wet seasons.The average annual precipitation - from 800 to 1300 mm.Tropical forests are inhabited by abundant wildlife.
evergreen tropical rain forests are found in many parts of our planet.There they are in Central America, northern South America, in the central and western equatorial Africa, in the coastal areas north of Western Australia, as well as on the islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans.Warm weather conditions in these parts are no different seasonality.Abundant rainfall exceeds the limit of 2500 mm during the year.This system is characterized by a huge variety of flora and fauna.
existing natural systems usually do not have any clear boundaries.Between them is necessarily a transition zone.It is not only the interaction of populations of different types of ecosystems, but there are special types of living organisms.Thus, the transition zone includes a greater variety of flora and fauna than surrounding her territory.
Water natural complexes
data unit of the biosphere may exist in fresh water and seas.To the first of these ecosystems include such as:
- Lenthic - a reservoir, ponds, lakes, ie standing water;
- Lothic presented streams, rivers, springs;
- wetlands as wetlands, swampy forests and coastal meadows.
Types of marine ecosystems include:
- pelogichesky complex - the open ocean;
- coastal waters in the area of the continental shelf;
- the area of upwelling, where carried out productive fisheries;
- straits, bays, estuaries, which are the estuaries;
- deep reef zone.
example natural complex
Environmentalists distinguish a wide variety of types of natural ecosystems.Nevertheless, the existence of each of them takes place on the same circuit.In order to more deeply understand the interaction of all living and non-living beings in the unity of the biosphere, consider the kind of meadow ecosystem.All living organisms and animals here have a direct effect on the chemical composition of the air and soil.
Meadow - is an equilibrium system, which includes a variety of elements.Some of them - makroprodutsenty which is a herbaceous vegetation, creates organic products of terrestrial community.Further, the life of the natural complex at the expense of the biological food chain.Animal or vegetable primary consumers eat grass and their parts.These are representatives of the fauna as large herbivores and insects, rodents and many species of invertebrates (ground squirrel and hare, partridge and so on. D.).
primary consumers are eaten secondary, which include carnivorous birds and mammals (wolf, owl, hawk, fox, and so on. D.).Next to connect the work of decomposers.Without them it is impossible to complete the description of the ecosystem.Types of many fungi and bacteria, and these elements are in the natural complex.Decomposers decompose organic products to the mineral state.If the temperature conditions are favorable, the plant residues and dead animals quickly break down into simpler compounds.Some of these components include in its composition the batteries, which can leach and reused.A more stable part of the organic matter (humus, cellulose, and so on. D.) Decomposes slowly, feeding flora.
The above natural complexes can exist without any human intervention.Quite different is the case in man-made ecosystems.They regard work only with the direct participation of man.For example, agro-ecosystems.The main condition of its existence is not only the use of solar energy, but also the flow of "subsidies" as a kind of fuel.
Part of this system is similar to the natural.The similarity with the natural complex observed during plant growth and development taking place at the expense of solar energy.However, agriculture is impossible without soil preparation and harvesting.And these processes require energy subsidies of human society.
To what kind of ecosystems is a city?This man-made complex, which is very important energy fuel.Its consumption in comparison with the flow of sunlight above two or three times.The city can be compared to deep or cave ecosystems.After all, the existence of these biogeocenosis depends on the receipt of matter and energy from the outside.
Urban ecosystems have arisen as a result of the historical process, called urbanization.Under his influence, the population of leaving rural areas, creating large populations.Gradually, the city more and more to strengthen its role in the development of society.In addition, for improving the lives of people he has created a complex urban system.This has led to some cities in the separation of the nature of the violation and the existing natural complexes.The system of the village can be called urban.However, as the industry has changed everything.To what kind of ecosystems is a city in whose territory the plant or factory work?Rather, it can be called industrial and urban.This complex consists of residential areas and areas on which the objects, producing a variety of products.The ecosystem of the city is different from the more abundant natural and, in addition, the flow of various toxic waste.
order to improve their environment, a person creates around their settlements so-called green belt.They consist of a grassy lawn and shrubs, trees and ponds.These small-sized natural ecosystems produce organic products, which does not play a special role in urban life.For the existence of people need food, fuel, water and electricity from the outside.
Urbanization dramatically changed the life of our planet.Exposure to artificial human system to a large extent changed the nature over vast areas of the Earth.This city does not only affect those areas where the own architectural and construction projects.It affects vast territory and beyond its borders.For example, by increasing the demand for wood products people cut down forests.
In operation, the city falls into the atmosphere a wide variety of substances.They pollute the air and changing climatic conditions.In the cities above the clouds and less sunshine, more fog and drizzle and a bit warmer than the surrounding countryside.