Eiffel Tower, symbol of Paris has a complicated history.First, it is not accepted, then used to, but now can not be imagined without the French capital of this amazing building.
famous symbol of Paris, give the city a familiar view of the world, located on the Champ de Mars, the former military parade ground, which turned into a beautiful park.It is divided into the alley, decorated with small ponds and flower beds.Opposite the tower is the bridge of Jena.Elegant openwork design is visible from many points in Paris, although Eiffel did not initially planned.The tower was supposed to perform one function - to become an unusual entrance to the World's Fair.
Project approval and appointment of design
history of the Eiffel Tower began in the late XIX century.In 1889, in the French capital was to be held the World Exhibition.This event was of great significance for the country.It was timed to coincide with the centenary of the storming of the Bastille, and was to last for 6 months.
One of the objectives of the exhibition - a demonstration of technological innovations, so the creators competing pavilions, whose project will be more likely to reflect future.Admission to the exhibition was to serve as the arch.The architects were asked to prepare a draft structure, which will demonstrate the technical strength of the country and the achievement of engineering.
proposal for participation in the competition received from the Paris administration in all engineering and design offices of the city, including to Gustave Eiffel.He had no ready-made solutions, and he decided to look for something suitable in projects that have been postponed.There's something he found a sketch of the tower, designed by Maurice Keshlenom, his employee.With Emile Nuge construction project has been finalized and submitted to the contest Eiffel.Provident engineer first got together with the creators of the project a patent on it and then bought it from Keshla and Nuge.Thus, the exclusive right of ownership to the drawings of the tower passed to Gustave Eiffel.
The competition offered a lot of interesting and controversial projects, and the history of the Eiffel Tower and could not start.Engineer introduced into the design changes to make it more decorative, and of the four remaining contenders at the end of the competition commission chose him.
Eiffel Tower - the year of the beginning stages of construction and erection
The construction of a giant construction began January 28, 1887.It lasted for two years, two months and five days.In those days it was an unprecedented speed.It explains all the high precision drawings, which was scrupulously exact size is specified more than 18 thousand construction details.In addition, to speed up the pace of work, the Eifel applied pre-manufactured part of the tower.To connect all the details of the design were used two and a half million rivets.In the pre-prepared parts of the rivet holes were drilled, and most of them have been installed, which greatly accelerates the assembly.
Eiffel was provided that none of the pre-harvested beams and other parts of the structure does not weigh more than 3 tons - so they are easier to lift cranes.When the height of the tower has outgrown the size of lifting devices, have come to the aid of an architect-designed specifically for the mobile cranes that move on rails, created for future elevator.
most difficult to Gustave Eiffel was not working at the top, at 300 meters altitude and the construction of the first platform of the tower.Sand-filled metal cylinders support the weight of the four inclined pillars.Gradually releasing sand, they can be set in the correct position.When this was done, the first platform installed horizontally.
cost of works on the construction of the tower was almost 8 million francs.Construction costs failed to recover in time for the exhibition (6 months).
weight and size of the facilities
How many meters Eiffel Tower was high again?It is 300 meters away and has a lot more strikes imagination with its size Statue of Liberty (93 meters with the granite pedestal).
And how many meters tall Eiffel Tower has now?After installing the new antennas it became 24 meters higher.The total weight of the tower is 10 thousand tons.With each painting weight of the building is increased by another 60 tons.
fate of the tower after the exhibition and the attitude of Parisians
Under a contract signed with Eiffel, the tower had to dismantle 20 years after construction.Its success was deafening - during the exhibition more than two million people wanted to see the ingenious construction that had no equal in the world.For the year managed to recoup most of the construction costs.But the admiration of the visitors did not share the creative intelligentsia of Paris.Eiffel Tower (France did not know more ambivalent about any other structures) provoked indignation and irritation among artists and writers.They considered her ugly, like a factory chimney, and feared that it would violate the unique look of Paris folding centuries.
history of the Eiffel Tower could end its dismantling, if not the era of radio.On the building were installed a radio antenna, and construction has gained significant strategic value.On the demolition of the tower could no longer out of the question.In 1906, the Eiffel Tower placed radio station, and in 1957 appeared on its top TV antenna.
Description of the Eiffel Tower and the reasons for the peculiarities of its construction
Ground floor construction is a pyramid.It is formed by four inclined pillars.On them rests the first square (65 meters in diameter) platform of the tower.The supports are connected by arched tracery vaults.Above the four pillars is the second platform.The next four columns of the tower and begin to weave together in a huge column.It is the third platform.Above it is a lighthouse and a small playground a little more than a meter in diameter.
On the first floor, on the idea of the architect, the restaurant was located.The second is another restaurant and containers with machine oil to service elevators.The third area was given over to the lab (astronomical and meteorological).
the unusual shape of the tower at the time of the Eifel was criticized.In fact, a brilliant engineer and architect was well aware that such a high structure of the main danger is a strong wind.The design and shape of the tower are designed to withstand high wind loads.
Eiffel Tower: interesting about the famous symbol of Paris
Adolf Hitler during the occupation of France by German troops visited Paris and wanted to climb the Eiffel Tower.But right before the arrival of the elevator drive was severely damaged, and repair it in military terms it was not possible.The leader of Germany was not able to climb the tower.After the liberation of the French capital, the elevator has earned a few hours.
architect of the Eiffel Tower was very concerned about security issues, as the work was at a very high altitude.In the history of the construction of any one of the workers was killed - it is a real achievement for those years.
from the Eiffel Tower and the associated unpleasant events - in 2009 she was awarded third place in popularity among suicides.
order to repaint the tower, you will need one and a half years of work and 60 tons of paint.
the day Tower consumes as much electricity as a small village of a hundred houses.
famous symbol of Paris has its own patented color - "brown Eiffel".He is as close to this bronze shade structures construction.
There are more than 300 copies of the famous tower.Several of them are in Russia: in Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Voronezh and Irkutsk.
Eiffel Tower culture
famous buildings have been the object of interest of artists, poets, writers and directors.
history of the Eiffel Tower recorded in documentary sources, and its possible future times shown in apocalyptic tapes.One of the most interesting films - documentary "The future of the planet: a life after people."It shows that the Eiffel Tower without maintenance for a long time will not be able to resist its main enemies: rust and wind.Approximately 150-300 years, its top-level third platform will collapse and fall.
But most of the Eiffel Tower can be seen in the paintings of artists.Jean Beraud, known for his genre paintings depicting everyday life in Paris, created the painting "Around the Eiffel Tower", which Parisienne with surprise considering the huge structure.A lot of dedicated work of creation Eiffel Marc Chagall.
Conclusion One of the most recognizable buildings of the world is the Eiffel Tower.France is rightly proud of this amazing symbol of Paris.The views from the top of the tower of the city, great.
admire him any day - a brilliant creation by Gustave Eiffel and is open to visitors on weekends.