Among environmental influences emit noise pollution, which is estimated as one of the most harmful to humans.All people have long lived surrounded by the sounds of silence in nature, though loud sounds is also very rare.Rustling leaves, chirping of birds and the rustle of wind noise can not be called.These sounds are useful for humans.And with the development of technical progress it has become urgent noise that people bring a lot of problems and even lead to disease.
although the sound does not damage the environment and affect only living organisms, we can say that the noise pollution in recent years has become an environmental issue.
What is the sound
hearing aid human arranged very difficult.Sound - a wave oscillations, transmitted through the air and other components of the atmosphere.These variations are perceived by the human eardrum first ear and then transmitted to the middle ear.Sound travels through 25,000 cells before realized.They are processed in the brain, so if they are very loud, it can lead to big health problems.The human ear can perceive sounds in the range of 15 to 20,000 vibrations per second.Less frequency is called infrasound and higher - ultrasound.
In nature, a little loud noises, they mostly quiet, favorably perceived by the person.Noise pollution occurs when sounds merge and exceed the intensity limits.Power of sound is measured in decibels, and the noise of a 120-130 dB is already leading to serious disorders of the human psyche and the effects on health.Noise is of anthropogenic origin, and increased with the development of technological progress.Already, even in country houses and the country it is difficult to hide from it.Natures noise exceeds 35 dB, and in the city of man is faced with the constant sound of 80-100 dB.
Background noise above 110 dB is considered unacceptable and very harmful to health.But increasingly, it is possible to encounter on the street, in stores, and even at home.
sources of noise pollution
Most have harmful effects on human sounds in the big cities.But even in country towns can suffer from noise pollution caused by the operating technical equipment at the neighbors: lawn mower, a lathe, or a stereo system.The noise from them may exceed the maximum permissible limits of 110 dB.Yet the main noise pollution occurs in the city.Its source in most cases craft.The greatest intensity of the sound comes from highways, metro and trams.Noise in these cases can reach 90 dB.
maximum allowable sound occur during takeoff or landing.Therefore, if not regulated settlements, when the airport is in the vicinity of residential buildings, noise pollution around it can cause problems in humans.In addition to transport noise, the sound of a man hinder construction, working air conditioning systems and radio.And modern man no longer hide from the noise, even in the apartment.Always-On appliances, television and radio over the allowed level of sounds.
How sounds affect human
susceptible to noise depends on the person's age, state of health, temperament and even gender.It has been observed that women are more sensitive to sounds.Besides the general background noise on modern man is influenced by inaudible sounds: infrasound and ultrasound.Even short-term exposure may cause headaches, sleep disorders, and mental disorder.The impact of noise on human studied long ago, in ancient cities to impose restrictions on the sounds in the night.In the Middle Ages, there was punishment "under the bell" when exposed to constant loud sounds people died.Now, in many countries there are laws about noise, which protects citizens against noise pollution at night.But the depressing effect on people and the complete absence of sounds.Man loses efficiency and experiencing a lot of stress in the soundproofed room.And the noise of a certain frequency, in contrast, are intended to stimulate thinking and improve mood.
harm to human noise
- Prolonged exposure to sound, even low intensity can cause high blood pressure and disorders of the cardiovascular system.
- strong effect on noise pollution brain activity.Constant noise causes aggressiveness, irritability, sleep disturbance, and depression of the central nervous system.
- Continuous noise affects visual and vestibular apparatus.The higher the intensity of the sound, the worse a person reacts to events.
- Noise about 90 dB causes hearing loss, and more than 140 dB can cause rupture eardrums.
- Prolonged exposure to intense noise level of 110 dB in humans there is a feeling of intoxication, similar to alcohol.
Effect of noise on the environment
- Constant loud noises disrupt plant cells.Plants in the city quickly wither and die, the trees live on less.
- Bees under intense noise lose their ability to navigate.
- Dolphins and whales are beaching due to strong operating sonar sounds.
- Noise pollution of cities leads to a gradual destruction of the structures and mechanisms.
How to protect yourself from the noise
features of the acoustic impact on people is their ability to accumulate, and the person is vulnerable to noise.Especially suffers the nervous system.Therefore, the percentage of mental disorders is higher among people who work in noisy factories.Young boys and girls are constantly listening to loud music, hearing over time is reduced to the level of 80-year old.But in spite of this, most people are not aware about the dangers of noise.How can you protect yourself?It is recommended to use personal protection, such as earplugs or headphones.Have spread soundproofed windows and wall panels.You should try to use the house as little as possible of appliances.Worst of all, when the noise interferes with a person normal night's sleep.In this case, it should protect the state.
law on noise
Every fifth inhabitant of the big city suffers from diseases related to noise pollution.The houses located near major highways, the noise level is exceeded by 20-30 dB.People complain about the loud sounds of construction projects, ventilation, enterprises, road works.Out of town residents plagued discos and noisy companies, to relax in nature.
to protect people and allow them to sleep, in recent years increasingly adopted regional laws on the silence regulating the time in which it is impossible to produce loud sounds.On weekdays it is usually from 22 pm to 6 am, and on weekends - from 23 to 9 o'clock.Violators are subject to administrative penalties and heavy fines.
Noise pollution in recent decades has become the most pressing problem of megacities.It is disturbing hearing loss in adolescents and increase the number of mental illnesses in people working in industries related to the loud noise.