Foreign trade and trade policy : current features of development of international trade in services

International trade and foreign trade policy in the service sector is becoming increasingly important and growing segment of the foreign economic relations.In recent decades, its volume exceeded the level of more than 4 trillion.USD. The global turnover of the share of services is 20%, where 1/3 of the tourist sector.In addition, the growth of trade in services, 25% ahead of the growth of world trade in goods.In Russia, the turnover of trade in services in 2010 exceeded the value of 2.5 billion. Dollars.

International trade and trade policy in the service sector suggested features, especially in their geographical distribution.About 70% of all exported services accounted for the United States, Germany, Britain, Japan, France, and others. These countries specialize mainly in providing services in the areas of finance, communications, tourism, culture and education.Developing countries or specialize in providing certain types of services, such as tourism (Jamaica), transit (Panama) et al., Or appear on the market by exporters of raw materials and trade in services does not exceed 10% of total exports (Iran, Angola).

In Belarus, for example, foreign trade and trade policy is wearing an asymmetrical character, where more than 70% of exports and 40% of import is transportation services.Further, the volume of foreign trade followed by construction services, communication services.Tourist services may become a promising export item for the country, but now their share in exports does not exceed 3%.

foreign trade and trade policy in exchange of services includes a number of patterns and trends.

First, continues to improve the structure of services: there are new species;actively stand out as an object of trade in services, previously worn auxiliary character;emerging markets large integrated companies that supply consumer "package" of services.

Second, the development of trade in services is also due to changes in technology.Hence the following trend - strengthening the role of information technology.Changes in information technology, liberalizing trade in services, and many other factors lead to the next trend - the growing internationalization of business activity.And it manifests itself primarily in the activities of TNCs on the world market.Foreign trade and trade policy, the United States, for example, is based on the production of services mainly abroad.

One of the major trends in the development of trade in services is reducing barriers to international trade and investment.

Thus, in the XXI century, the foreign trade and trade policy in the service sector continued to develop dynamically and to play an increasingly prominent role.It directly determines the trade image of the country and the status of its currency position.This relationship is shown in the following:

successful foreign trade leads to economic situation in the country.

between the exchange rate and the volume of foreign trade, there is a positive correlation, but the exchange rate - not the only factor affecting foreign trade.

with cheaper currency is an increase in exports.

weakening of the currency is due to the increase in interest rates, and this is very detrimental to the mechanism of the economy: loans become more expensive.

involved in international trade are interested in a stable exchange rate, changes that are consistent and predictable.

In a market economy, the exchange rate reflects actual macroeconomic indicators of the country, and the change can only stimulate foreign trade, not turning out for her decisive factor in the growth.

growth of trade depends on the situation within enterprises: high quality, low cost and competent sales increase competitiveness of national products and stimulate the growth of trade.