Yeasts are living organisms that have long been cultivated by humans and used for the preparation of food and beverages.When asked what makes the yeast, the answer in one word it would be impossible.The fact that they existed on the earth before the birth of human civilization.
Yeast - are live microorganisms that can feed and reproduce.They are very sensitive to temperature and composition of food.
yeast fungi exist in nature everywhere.They feed on biological raw materials and in the process of metabolism, i.e. fermentation produce new chemical compounds.The number of these microorganisms in nature is so great that if we compare it with the number of grains of sand in the seas and on land, the yeast spores will be many times more.Needless to say, that species of yeasts are also there in abundance.Some are good for our health, and others - are harmful.All living yeast intensively emit carbon dioxide and alcohol fraction.
Types mycetomas used in the production of bread dough
in food, and in our case in the baking industry, using only a few types, namely those eating nutrient substrate, emit large amounts of carbon dioxide.It is because of the bubbles of gas and turns the bread porous.Its quality is even determined by how behaves a loaf when you squeeze it to the opposite sides of the connection and release.If it straightened to its original state - this means that the bread quality.Yeast in this class too much.In the modern bakery industry for soft bread most commonly used mushrooms from the family Saccharomyces.
Baker's yeast and sourdough
What makes yeast bread, everyone knows bakers.Speaking of bread yeast correct to begin with the story of the leaven.On it is mentioned in the ancient books, numbering several thousand years in age.Leaven and baker's yeast - are one and the same.Sourdough - a product, the ratio of which has always been particularly careful.All her actions surrounding many trappings and rituals.Products, which are made from the original starter, chosen very carefully.The most successful were stored and grown, passing from generation to generation.
quality bread - a guarantee of good health
fact that different types of mushrooms exist in different conditions.And even if the dough yeast bred on the same raw materials, will be very tasty, it does not mean that the next time you use sourdough manifest itself similarly.There is always a possibility that the original was replaced by a new culture of mushroom.It is not visible to the naked eye, but the next batch of bread may be tasteless and even harmful to health.It is no accident in the old days one way to destroy an enemy tribe, or other community was so.Scout penetrated into the enemy camp and port leaven, because it was thought that the bread and water - overriding food for humans.The quality of these two products depends on the health and life.What yeasts do with the product?They alter its appearance, consistency, composition and properties.To understand the mechanism of their work, it is necessary to understand how and what makes baker's yeast.
leaven of hops
Take one cup of hop cones, pour two cups of water and put on fire.Simmer until the liquid until volume is reduced by half.Cool to 37-40 degrees and strain.The hop broth put one or two tablespoons of sugar and half a cup of flour.Cover with cheesecloth.This is to ensure that the yeast to get the oxygen, otherwise they will die.Place the container in a warm, dry place away from direct sunlight and drafts.Two days later, you have to grow a culture of baker's yeast, the same yeast that taking a little, you can re-use in baking.Typically, 1 kg of flour required from 50 to 100 g of yeast.
scrumptious sourdough bread is obtained from barley malt with honey and hops.Malt - a flour, is ground from the germinated and dried grains.The microbiological composition of its fundamentally different from that of flour from grain polished.
secret of tasty beer - malt, hops and yeast
Hops and barley malt - a fact of which makes brewer's yeast.The brewing process is extremely simple.Whole grain barley is soaked for germination.Rye grain - it's also what makes the yeast of beer.However, due to the specific taste, often use barley.Germinated a must.Neproroschennoe grain yeast do not like - there are a lot of starch and low in sugar.When activated, the embryo, that is, germination, grain activated amino acid present in it - amylase.Amylase and hydrolysis of starch into digestible sugars for the fungi.Sprouted grain called malt, while kept at rest for more complete fermentation, then milled, mixed with water and cooked with the addition of hops.It turns wort - an excellent food for brewer's yeast.To use two kinds of beer yeast.Some fermented drink, and live on the surface at + 14-25 degrees Celsius.These so-called saddle form on the surface yeast mash foamy head.Once the yeast fermented riding weight sinks to the bottom.It starts another colony - grassroots yeast.They work in colder conditions - at a temperature of from 6 to 10 degrees.
Uneasy art baker
In the old days, before the advent of electric stoves and refrigerators, cooking process and the preservation of sourdough bread was almost a sacrament.Cultures do not lend, and when they made the bread (a process that took at least two days), then tried not to make noise, do not slam the doors and shutters.Followed brew to keep pace with time obmyat it and prevent sour.Non-compliance with conditions is fraught with the development of other yeast culture, because of different yeasts need different temperature, density and composition of the nutrient substrate.Useful yeast can replace harmful.It was believed that the poor person is always tasteless bread.Bread tried to buy only from a particular master.
Yeast - a source of vitamins necessary for health
yeast fermented bread so base that it changes, and chemical composition.Good bread consists of flour, water and yeast, which is present in a minor amount of sugars for yeast food.The pleasant taste of bread - a consequence of flour yeast fermentation.Yeast bread enriched with B vitamins and vitamin D. When baking in the Russian stove, most nutrients remained.It is not clear whether it was known in ancient times, but the temperature of the furnace had three characteristics - before, during and after baking.Soft uniform heat during cooking bread was below the boiling point of water.At very high heat the product is burnt on the outside and inside is not baked through.Modern dry yeast, unlike yeast, very comfortable, as the less volatile and more stable.Bake one excellent bread can even inexperienced hostess.In this regard, there is a natural question: "What makes dry yeast?»
Sugar, water, air and the temperature of 30-50 degrees - the optimum environment for
Since Saccharomyces yeast - are living organisms, they are, by and largedo not do, and grow out of the ordinary used in the production of bread yeast - Saccharomyces that is bacteria-eating sweet - sugar, sucrose, fructose, and so on. d. The plants for food baker's yeast used sugar beet waste mass - molasses.Sugar beet - a fact of which make the raw yeast in domestic enterprises.
yeasts grow very fast on this product.Molasses, it is called a black treacle is a thick, viscous liquid is very dark in color.One ton of substrate rises to 750 kg of yeast.Molasses from sugar beet or sugar cane - that of which makes the yeast baking pressed, and instantons.At the present time, when large volumes of production and high demand for ready-made yeast, is the most common basis for the cultivation of Saccharomyces.However, these fungi can grow well and at the other plant material rich in natural sugars.If you use a starchy substrate - potatoes or grain, it must be subjected to fermentation.
modern security product to raise test
thus obvious that from which baker's yeast to make a modern production, is of no harm to health.With proper storage and use of modern high-speed dry yeast can not be afraid that they will develop a new, unhealthy culture, because in food production uses only those yeasts that are well studied for resistance to various transformations.Moreover, they are much safer than the "wet" leaven, cooked at home.The dry yeast metabolic processes are in a static state.Metabolism begins only with the addition of sugar and liquid - water or milk.
deal with the fact of what makes the yeast for bread, will decide how to give preference to - wet or dry pressed the instant (instant).
grown on molasses yeast mass is separated, that is decanted.The yeast is added and the water is separated again.As a result, several procedures yeast mass becomes grayish color and viscous consistency.Vacuum unit removes excess moisture.This process is called sublimation.The resulting gray plastic, clay-like material is cooled, divided into portions, is formed into briquettes, packed into waxed paper and is sold.Keep this product should be in a refrigerator at a temperature of minus 2 degrees Celsius and humidity of about 72-75%.Shelf life - 12 days.The retail sales are the yeast in our time can not always be found.In this case, I want to learn from what makes compressed yeast, if they are such a rare commodity.After all, we often tend to think that the products that adorned the shelves 20 years ago, was much better than the present.Perhaps so, but not in respect of yeast.
turns out, the case that they do not, from which make compressed baker's yeast, and in that they are extremely inconvenient to use.To sustain the necessary humidity and temperature in a dry cold contemporary domestic refrigerator is extremely difficult.The period of 12 days, also limits the housewife.Typically, baking yeast dough engaged on weekends.Whole bunch pressed yeast for one too many times.For a family of 4 people, even with invited guests, half packs more than enough, and next weekend to save these yeasts can not be active.
Dry Yeast has long been firmly taken place in our kitchens.I must say that, in spite of modern electronic technology, which are used by manufacturers of this product, dried yeast were known in pre-Christian times when the starter was dried to preserve it in the long-distance transport.So, from what makes dry yeast, is no different from that from which make compressed.It's the same sweet syrup and, in fact, themselves Saccharomyces.
their manufacturing process more long, because grown and partially dehydrated yeast mass should dosushit and converted into pellets.There are three types of dry yeast.This dry active yeast, active dry and instant dry active instant instantons.Sugar syrup and Saccharomyces - that of which make quick yeast.It differs only in dehydration technology.If dry yeast is used conventional low-temperature drying oven Russian technology, the instant dried in vacuum by sublimation.In the first method of drying a product is obtained with a rather weak vital activity.Although the lifespan of yeast - 12 months, they hardly hold out to the end, so much loss of property ferment pastry, that they may be advised to buy only at the beginning of the claimed on the packaging date.Therefore, reading the accompanying inscription on the packaging carefully studied not only the information that from what makes yeast baking, composition of the product, its caloric content, the name of the manufacturer, date of manufacture and yeast, and their duration.
emulsifiers and antioxidants
If you are against adding to the product of emulsifiers and antioxidants, use compressed yeast or leaven.But do not forget that they may be present unwholesome health microflora and chemical elements.Emulsifiers are added to the raw yeast mass before drying.All the dough is poured into the pan in a vacuum chamber.It creates a vibration, it shares a dried substrate into smaller fractions, which are then packaged in sealed bags.The emulsifier and the antioxidant is added to the yeast for preventing unwanted growth of fungi and against their adhesion before they will be used in the test.I do not think that the additives included in the composition to harm our health.This opinion is profoundly mistaken and very gives dilettantism and "yard competence" in matters of molecular chemistry.Sometimes you can even hear this: "Everybody knows, of what makes yeast.Composition of good yeast - Saccharomyces is only and nothing else! "However, even in the compressed yeast pour vegetable oil, that they would not have started to actively proliferate until they reach into a sweet solution.Asked What makes dry yeast (composition is described on the package), you can see that the product contains natural yeast, emulsifier E 491, E 320 antioxidant, starch or rehydration.Those cases where the composition of dry yeast contain only yeast and nothing else, saying only that the manufacturer does not have full information on the composition of the product, rather than the absence of stabilizing and disinfection of impurities.People with a sense of humor, said that the fear of food can kill much faster than the food itself.This applies to food additives.
cooking bread dough, kneaded instantons instant yeast, is a pleasure.It is well established instant yeast "Saf-moment".Knowing of what makes yeast "Saf-moment", as indicated on the label, you feel a lot more confidence to the manufacturer, than if he had not written that to control the level of humidity in the yeast mass introduced rehydration.This yeast can not breed in sweet milk or sugar syrup.They clearly raise the dough, if pour them directly into the flour or dough ready to vmese.
Ode Saccharomyces and vacuum
What to prefer - the yeast or leaven, everyone decides for himself.However, what makes the yeast, we understand.On the sugar syrup it is very difficult, or rather impossible not to grow Saccharomyces, and any health hazard mushrooms.Alcohol and carbon dioxide emitted by these young workers who destroy pathogenic microflora, and vacuum sublimation and sealed package guarantees the absence of unsanitary contaminants.Leaven - a good thing, but is it possible to cook it the same sterile?