Plants - our green friends.They deservedly so named because for humans and animals, flora and its components - is a source of food, materials for household needs, medicines, the main regulator of air cleanliness, and so on.
Today there are more than 350 thousand different species of plants.They all have unique morphological and genetic characteristics, make us happy and multicolored splendor, now deliver the aesthetic pleasure.However, their life forms may be different, but always important, unique and beautiful.And their existence is directly influenced by the conditions necessary for plant life.
Life forms of plants
This classification can result from the point of view of different sciences: Systematics and Ecology.We are interested in more than just the systematic, as it is based on the physical appearance of plants.From this position all the kingdom of flora can be divided into groups that have formed the evolutionary, and that affected the living conditions of the plants.
- Trees - pronounced barrel height of not less than two meters.
- Shrubs - from 50 cm to 2 m tall, several shafts extending from the ground.
- shrubs - formed from the previous form, but the size of 50 cm.
- Semishrubs - emerged from bushes form, but the upper part of the multiple trunks dead.
- Herbs - low-growing plants in the winter freeze its aerial shoots.
- Liana - characterized by creeping stems branching and provided with hooks, clinging tendrils and other devices.
- Succulents - plants that can store large amounts of water in the stem and leaves.
What conditions are necessary for plant life of each of these groups?Let us examine them in detail.
Environmental factors as the condition of plant life
These include the following.
- moisture (water);
- temperature regime;
2. Biotic: living things that surround this plant (animals, microorganisms, fungi).
3. anthropogenic - human influence and its activities in various sectors of life and industry.
What conditions are necessary for plant life the most?That is, which of these factors are determinative?On this question difficult to answer.Only their cumulative competent combination allows the plants to feel as comfortable, safe and fast to grow, develop and reproduce.
effect of light
The most important difference of plant organisms from all others - is autotrophic way of eating.That is the ability to convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy contained within the formed organic compounds.The whole complex biochemical processes, built in two phases, called photosynthesis.The product of such transformation becomes starch as a spare plant nutrient and oxygen gas - as the source of life on our planet.
becomes obvious that without photosynthesis there would be no life.Without sunlight will not have this process.So, the natural energy of solar radiation and other sources of light - the conditions necessary for the growth and development of plants.The role of these factors are determined.
in relation to light there are several groups of organisms.
- Shadow plants. Such representatives can not tolerate direct sunlight, they are quite scattered very low light.For example, much of the forest herbs, hidden in the shade of the trees - sorrel, maianthemum, backache, saxifrage, Corydalis, snowdrop, Mountain Girl, bluebell, ivy, bracken, celandine and others.
- -shade. These plants prefer moderate lighting and quite tolerant, even to long blackout.However, the sunlight is still loved and short exposure to direct sunlight react positively.This, for example, currant, lily of the valley, blueberries, elderberries, cranberries, Solomon's seal, cuff and others.
- photophilous - plants that are most in need of bright direct sunlight.Only under these conditions, the process of photosynthesis takes place them as quickly and completely.Examples: mother and stepmother, clover, lavender, immortelle, lemon balm, lotuses, water lilies, grasses, cacti, trees and most of the others.
So what plants need to live in the first place?Sunlight, which is the main source of plant processes - photosynthesis.
value of water
hydrogen dioxide is the most important matter in life, not only plants, but also of all living beings on the planet.It is known that life on Earth is made possible by the presence of liquid water.Therefore, its value is difficult to overestimate.Universal solvent in which biochemical reactions occur every living organism, it is an integral structural part, a component of each cell.
importance of water for the plant life is no less important than sunlight.Because water creates turgor pressure on the cell walls, that it carried all transport connections, it is - an environment for chemical reactions.In short, water plant - source of vitality.
Not all of the flora is equally related to water and its quantity.So, there are three main ecological groups of plants in relation to the hydrogen oxide.
- xerophytes - the inhabitants of the most arid regions that have managed to adapt to the lack of moisture.Examples: desert and semi-desert plants, the inhabitants of the sea coasts.Eschscholzia, cacti, wheat grass, beach grass, briofillum, camel thorn and so on.
- Mesophytes - inhabitants of areas with moderate amounts of water.This plant meadows, forest dwellers.Normally apply to moist soil, but can not tolerate excessive moisture or drought.Timothy, daisy, cornflowers, burnet, Lyuba, lilac, hazel, clover, lungwort, goldenrod, all deciduous trees and shrubs.
- hydrophytes .Such plants are happiest when they are partially in water (fresh, salt) or completely immersed in it.Examples: algae, aquatic buttercups, hornworts, water lilies, posedonii, pondweed, altemii, and other mollusk.
So, what conditions are necessary for plant life?Water enters them in the list.
role of temperature
Warm days for all living beings in joy.However, among the plants, there are those who endure low temperatures quite easily.All flora with respect to this factor can be divided into three groups.
- Heat-loving .The conditions necessary for plant life of this group - it does not measure the temperature below 5 0C.The best option for them is approximately + 25-26 0C.These plants do not tolerate sharp fluctuations in air temperature can not withstand even mild frosts.Examples: rice, cotton, cocoa, palm oil, bananas, almost all the inhabitants of tropical and subtropical.
- Cold-plant. prefer moderate temperatures, but able to carry and relatively low, experiencing frosts without damage.Examples: potatoes, all root vegetables, greens, cruciferous many kinds, cereals and others.
- Frost .Able to spend the winter under the snow blanket, retaining viability.Examples of such horticultural plants such as rhubarb, perennial onions, garlic, sorrel and others.
Conclusion: temperature control - an important condition for the normal growth and development of all plants on Earth.
This factor is extremely important especially for fruit, fruit and vegetable crops cultivated by man.For in vivo plants colonize such habitats, which are able to adapt.Including a content of mineral salts in the soil.
But cultural representatives need help.Every owner knows what a complex mineral fertilizers should be made for certain plants to get the crop.
Overall minerals - is an important element of the power of individuals, which is absorbed by plants from the soil by suction with the bath water.But the plant is harmful overabundance of fertilizers and the lack of them leads to slow growth and poor harvests.
composition of air
What conditions are necessary for plant life, in addition to the above?Also important is the composition of the air.After the plants at night, as well as other living beings breathe, consuming oxygen.Therefore it in the air for their normal development should be sufficient.This means that in high concentrations of harmful gases, dust, fungi and micro-organisms the plants will feel very bad.
Biotic factors and their impact
We reviewed all the abiotic factors of plant life.Heat, light, air, water - main and indispensable conditions for normal growth and development.
Biotic same factors - their environmental impact on biomass, that is, other plants, animals, fungi, insects, and so on.To consider all aspects of the impact of these conditions has been established science of ecology.It should only be noted that the biotic factors are no less important than the abiotic.
main living conditions for houseplants
Environmental conditions necessary for life houseplants, are no different from those that we have considered all in general.They also need sunlight, warmth, water, mineral nutrition and protection from pests.
potted flowers to feel good and look beautiful, you should approach them individually, taking into account the peculiarities of a particular genus and species of plants.