In the middle of the XIII century, Russia has undergone one of the toughest tests in its history - the Mongol-Tatar invasion.The Golden Horde - a state entity created by the Mongols, the purpose of which was the exploitation of the conquered peoples.But not all nations meekly put up with a heavy yoke.The liberation of Russia from the Golden Horde will just be the subject of our study.
founder of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan was.Great Mongol managed to unite disparate tribes into a single Tatar mighty power.Just a couple of decades, it has grown from a small state ulus to the size of the huge empire in the world.He conquered China, Tangut state, Khorezm and smaller tribes and nations.History of Genghis Khan was a succession of wars and conquests, brilliant victories and great triumphs.
In 1223 the Great Khan generals Sabutai bagatur and Jebe Noyon within the reconnaissance in force in the Black Sea steppes on the river Kalka routed the Russian-Polovtsian army.But since this time
Years passed.History of Genghis Khan, his great deeds have inspired generations.One of his grandsons was Batu Khan (Batu).It was a great warrior to match his illustrious grandfather.Jochi Ulus Batu owned, named after his father, and that he was bequeathed to the great trek west, which never managed to Genghis Khan.
In 1235, in a pan-Mongol Karakorum was called Kurultai, in which it was decided to organize a great march to the west.Cihangir, or chief commander, as you might expect, was elected Batu.
Mongol army in the years 1238-1240 with fire and sword passed through the land of Rus.Specific princes, among whom were constantly feuding, failed to unite into a single force to repel the invaders.After conquering Russia, the Mongols hordes rushed to central Europe, burning on their way villages and towns in Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Bulgaria.
Education Golden Horde
After the death of Batu Jochi Ulus passed into the hands of his younger brother Berke.It was he who by and large are the real creator of the Golden Horde as a state.He laid the city of Sarai, which became the capital of the nomadic empire.From there he ruled the state, went hiking on the recalcitrant tribes, collected tribute.
Golden Horde - a multinational state with a developed apparatus of oppression, consisting of many tribes and nations, which united the Mongol force of arms.
Earth Golden Horde stretched from the steppes of modern Kazakhstan to Bulgaria, but Russia itself in its structure are not included.Russian lands were considered vassal principalities and powers tributaries of the Horde.
Among the many Russian princes was the one who appointed the khans of the Golden Horde great, handing him the label.This meant that it was the prince must obey specific minor rulers.Beginning with Ivan Kalita, the great reign is almost always in the hands of Moscow princes.
Initially the Mongols themselves collected tribute from the conquered Russian lands.He headed the collection of taxes called Baskakov, who was considered the head of the Mongolian administration in Russia.He had his own army, after which he claimed the power of the Golden Horde in the conquered lands.Baskakov had to submit to all the princes, including great.
It baskachestva times were most difficult for Russia.After the Mongols took not only a heavy tribute, they trampled on their horses hooves Russian land and unruly killed or taken into captivity.
But the Russian had no intention to tolerate tyranny of the Mongol governors.They raised one uprising after another.The largest uprising occurred in 1327 in Tver, in which was killed the brother of Khan Uzbek Chol Khan.The Golden Horde is not forgotten, and the following year was sent a punitive expedition against tverichey.Tver was looted, but the positive thing is that, seeing the rebellion of the Russian people, the Mongol administration was forced to abandon the Institute baskachestva.Since then, the tribute to Khan Mongols are not collected, and the grand dukes.Therefore, it is from that date to be counted beginning of this process, as the liberation of Russia from the power of the Golden Horde.
As time went on, and now themselves khans of the Golden Horde staged a squabble among themselves.This period in history called Great zamyatnya.During this time period, which began with the 1359, in 20 years gave way to more than 25 khans.And some of them ruled by a few days.
This fact influenced the further weakening of the yoke.Successive Khans simply were forced to give the label the strongest prince, who in gratitude for it continued sending tribute, although it is not to the extent as previously.The strongest, as before, remained the Prince of Moscow.
Battle of Kulikovo
Meanwhile, authorities in the Golden Horde usurped temnik mother, who was not a blood Genghisides.Moscow Prince Dmitry Ivanovich considered this fact a reason to finally lose the Tatar yoke.He refused to pay tribute, citing the fact that my mother is not the legitimate Khan, and manages the Horde through their henchmen.
Furious mother began to gather an army to march on the rebellious prince.His army included, besides the actual Tatars More Crimean Genoese.In addition, he promised to provide assistance to the Lithuanian prince Jagiello.
Dmitry also did not lose time and knowing that his mom will not forgive failure, collected his own army.He was joined by Suzdal and Smolensk princes, but rather cowardly sit Ryazan.
decisive battle took place in 1380 at the Kulikovo field.Before the battle was a significant event.According to an old tradition in the field came together in a duel heroes of the opposing sides.From the Tartars came the famous warrior Chelubey, Russian troops represented Relight.The fight did not reveal the winner, as both warriors pierced the heart of each other.
Soon, the battle began.The balance is sloped on one, then the other side, but still in the end Prince Dmitry won a brilliant victory, completely defeating the army of Mamaia.In honor of this triumph he was called Don.
At this time in the eastern steppes by means of the great Timur Khromtsov significantly strengthened Tokhtamysh Khan, who is hereditary Genghisides.He was able to collect a large enough army to finally submitted to him all the Golden Horde.Century Great zamyatni was completed.
Tokhtamysh sent a message to Dmitri that he is grateful to him for his victory over usurper mom and expects from Russia as a legitimate tribute to the khan of the Golden Horde.Of course, Moscow prince, who worked so hard got the victory on Kulikovo field similar situation does not suit.On the demand of tribute he refused.
Now Tokhtamysh gathered a huge army and moved it to Russia.Weakened after Kulikovskii battle Russian land had nothing to oppose this war.Dmitry Donskoy was forced to flee from Moscow.Tokhtamysh began the siege of the city and took his deception.Dmitry no choice but to once again accept the payment of tribute.Exemption from the Golden Horde had to be postponed indefinitely, despite the grandiose victory at Kulikovo field.
Soon Tokhtamysh proud of their victories to the extent that dare to go to war against their benefactor Timur.Great Hromets Khan defeated utterly presumptuous, but this fact is not freed Russian land from the payment of tribute, as the place came another competitor Tokhtamysh Golden Throne.
weakening of the Horde
Moscow princes could not completely lose the Tatar yoke, but it is always weakened, as the Horde itself has expired.Of course, there have been more difficult for Russia times, such as the siege of Moscow Tartar emir Edigeya.But it often happens that the Russian princes for several years could not pay tribute, while the khans of the Golden Horde did not have the time and effort it required.
Golden Horde began to crumble before our eyes.From her pieces fell away Crimean, Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanate.The Golden Horde - it was not the mighty state, which terrifies the many people with the help of his huge army, collecting from them exorbitant tribute.By and large, by the time it ceased to exist, so the remains of this once great power in modern historiography called the Great Horde.The power of education over Russia, while Moscow has united the principality, has been reduced to a fiction.
Standing on the Ugra
final liberation of Russia from the Golden Horde is usually associated with so-called standing on the Ugra, which occurred in 1480.
At the time of this event Russia, Moscow princes united dynasty, has become one of the most powerful states of Eastern Europe.The prince, Ivan III recently added to his rebellious Novgorod lands, and now rules autocratically controlled the whole territory.In fact, it has long been a fully independent ruler, nothing inferior to European kings, but remained nominally a vassal of the Great Horde.
But still, Ivan III in 1472 has completely stopped paying Horde exit.And eight years later Ahmad Khan felt the strength that, in his opinion, justice and force the rebellious Prince to pay tribute.
Russian and Tatar troops came to meet each other.They came out on the opposite bank of the river Ugra, runs right along the border of the Horde and Russia.None of the opponents not in a hurry to cross, because he understands that the party that dares to do this will be in a disadvantageous situation in the coming battle.
stood there for more than a month, Russian and Horde army finally decided to break up, never tied a decisive battle.
It was the last attempt to make Russia the Horde once again to pay tribute to, so it was in 1480 is considered the date of the overthrow of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
Conquering Horde residues
But it was not the last page of the Russian-Tatar intergovernmental relations.
Soon Mengli Crimean Khan Giray defeated the remnants of the Great Horde, after which it ceased to exist entirely.But apart from the Crimean Khanate as successors of the Golden Horde were Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian.Now Russia began to treat them as slave territories planting on the throne of his henchmen.
However, Ivan IV the Terrible, took the title of king of the time, decided not to play in the Khanate vassal and as a result of several successful campaigns finally annexed these lands to the Russian kingdom.
only independent successor of the Golden Horde had only Crimean Khanate.However, soon it was to recognize the vassalage of the Ottoman sultans.But the Russian Empire managed to conquer the Crimea only when the Empress Catherine II, who in 1783 ousted the last Khan Shahin Giray.
Since remnants of the Horde were subjugated Rus born with once the yoke of the Tatars.
Thus, Russia, despite the fact that for centuries had to endure grueling Mongol-Tatar yoke, found the strength with the help of the wise policy of the Moscow princes lose hateful yoke.Later, she went on the offensive and swallowed up all the remnants of once mighty Golden Horde.
decisive point was placed in the XVIII century, when a Russian peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire Crimean Khanate departed.