hyperkinetic syndrome is today one of the most common behavioral disorders in children and adolescents.According to various sources, this diagnosis is about 3 to 20% of the students who come to the appointment with the pediatrician.According to the clinical manifestations can be confused with bad behavior, anxiety or features of temperament, as one of its main symptoms is increased activity.
However, thanks to some brilliant features professionals can differentiate this violation.Learn the symptoms and how to diagnose and treat ADHD.
hyperkinetic syndrome.The definition and prevalence in children
hyperkinetic syndrome - this is one of the most common behavioral disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence.Like many other emotional disorders, it appears excessive activity and concern.Also, it is often called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD for short).
Usually, the violation occurs in children of primary school age.From seven to twelve years, its frequency varies from 3 to 20% of the young patients.And in the first years of life ADHD it occurs much less frequently - at 1.5-2% of children.In this case it appears the boys about 3-4 times more often than girls.Symptoms
As already mentioned, the hyperkinetic syndrome in children manifested primarily hyperactivity and irritability.Usually this occurs in the primary school period.But often the symptoms are observed on the third or fourth year of life.
If we talk about the first manifestations of the syndrome, it is possible to note an increased sensitivity to stimuli that occurs even in infancy.These children are sensitive to bright light, noise or temperature change.Also syndrome ADHD manifests restlessness during wakefulness and dream, swaddling resistance and other symptoms.
In primary school age experience the following symptoms:
- absent-mindedness.The child is not able to concentrate on any subject, can not listen to the teacher for a long time.
- Memory disorders.Because ADHD is worse than the younger student learns curriculum.
- Impulsiveness.The child becomes fussy and excitable.This is often expressed in the inability to listen to the end, wait for their turn.The actions of the child are often unmotivated and unexpected.
- Sleep disorders.
- Emotional disorders: short temper, aggression, defiance or, alternatively, unfounded tearfulness.
should also be noted that many school-age children have problems with motor coordination.This manifests itself in difficulties with writing, coloring, tying shoelaces.There are violations of spatial coordination.
reasons and factors influencing the occurrence of ADHD
the emergence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is influenced by many factors:
- various complications of pregnancy.Strong and long toxemia or high blood pressure expectant mother can cause ADHD in children.
- unhealthy lifestyle during pregnancy.In all likelihood, it is no secret that the use of alcohol or smoking may adversely affect the tab organs and systems of a child (including the nervous system).There is also a factor provoking hyperkinetic syndrome, include heavy physical work or stress.
- Prolonged or too fast childbirth can also have a negative impact on child development.
- social factors.Behavioral problems and irritability are often a reaction to the unfavorable situation in the family or at school.Thus, the body tries to cope with a stressful situation.By itself, this factor was not able to cause ADHD but can greatly enhance its symptoms.
However, the only and true causes of hyperkinetic syndrome is not yet revealed.
ADHD or temperament?
Often, finding the child impulsivity, and excessive activity, parents suspected he had ADHD.But do not forget that each child has his own temperament.For example, the characteristic features of the choleric is just impulsiveness, temper and intemperance.And often there is little sanguine inability to focus on one class and the need to frequently switch from one activity to another.
Therefore, before sounding the alarm, it is worth a closer look to your baby may be that his behavior - it is simply a manifestation of temperament.In addition, especially of primary school age require a small memory footprint and low attention span.These characteristics improve gradually as they grow older.Also at this time it is often observed restlessness and impulsiveness.Child 7 years still can not long concentrate on one thing.
Another thing is that in ADHD, these symptoms are much more pronounced.If, however, the increased activity is accompanied by absent-mindedness and significant impairment of memory or sleep, it is better to seek help from a specialist.
Like today reveal ADHD?To make it available, as well as find out whether it is not accompanied by other more complex diseases that require first of all consultation children's neurologist.Comprehensive survey will involve several stages.
Primarily it involves a subjective diagnosis.A doctor examines a child and holding a conversation with the parents, during which the specified characteristics of the course of pregnancy, childbirth and infancy.
After that, the child is asked to go through several psychological tests.Thus the estimated attention, memory, and emotional stability.To survey was objective, such tests are carried out only in children older than five years.
final stage of diagnosis becomes electroencephalography.With the help of estimated activity of the cerebral cortex, fixed possible violations.According to the results of the study doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment if necessary.An experienced specialist takes into account the characteristics of primary school age and can distinguish them from the symptoms of the disease.
hyperkinetic syndrome Because symptoms usually occur even in kindergarten, it is important that schools and teachers were able to diagnose it.By the way, teachers often used to draw attention to this problem than parents.
What hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome?
There is a disease with a similar name, which does not affect the behavior.This hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome.The fact that, unlike behavioral disorders, ADHD is that it is a manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, namely, violation of the heart.It does not occur in children, but mainly at young men.Since this syndrome is often not accompanied by any symptoms, it can be identified only with the objective examination.
as noted experts, exploring hyperkinetic syndrome, the treatment of this disorder must be complex.One of its components is the use of drugs.With correct diagnosis of their efficiency becomes very high.These drugs have a symptomatic effect.They suppress the manifestations of the syndrome and significantly facilitate the development of the child.
Drug therapy should be prolonged, as it is important to not only remove the symptoms, but also to consolidate the effect obtained.Do not rely on folk remedies, because only a doctor will be able to choose the best drug and prescribe effective treatment.
Another component of the treatment of ADHD is a psychological support.A child of 7 years is especially in need of help, as the first academic year is always difficult for both the student and parent.Especially if there is hyperactivity.In this case, the psychological correction is necessary to form the child's skills to communicate effectively with their peers and relatives.
It also involves close cooperation with teachers and parents.The child needs constant care and family support, as well as the attentive participation by teachers.
occurs whether ADHD in adults?
Manifestations of ADHD are gradually reduced, starting from adolescence.First, reduced hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder - last.However, approximately twenty percent of people diagnosed with hyperkinetic syndrome some of its symptoms persist into adulthood.
In some cases, there is a tendency to antisocial behavior, alcoholism and drug addiction.Therefore, ADHD symptoms should be promptly diagnosed and treated.
Tips for parents
What should parents do if a child has ADHD syndrome discovered?First, you need to create a favorable atmosphere in the house.It is important to adhere strictly to the regime of the day - so the child will be calmer and more balanced.
Given that ADHD show increased activity, the child should be written in the sports section.In general, any interesting hobbies significantly improve the state of the child.Communication with the child should be calm and friendly.But blame and punish not worth it, because it still did not achieve, but the care, support and attention of parents play a very important role.