concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm are some of the most important concepts in computer science.Many people today, in the age of computer technology, think about what it is and start gradually whatever reasons in more detail to delve into the basics of computer science, while the present generation passes this material is already in sixth grade.
What is it?
What is the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm?
algorithm - a specific sequence of steps, that is, in principle, we have to deal with them every day, even though we may not be aware.
Man and algorithm
For example, if we ask someone from their family members to buy something in the store, we ask the sequence of actions, that is, detailed information about what exactly the products you need to buy, how much, and whatthe requirements for each of them.However, as mentioned above, given a clear sequence of actions, such as:
- user`s certain shop.
- find out whether there is sold white bread.
- find out whether it is fresh.
- If the answers to questions 2 and 3 are "yes", then in this case, bought two loaves.
Of course, it may seem that the procedure is fairly ordinary, and such a description is quite voluminous.But in fact, when it comes to what is the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm in modern science, there instructions may be much more extensive, as the above algorithm is one of the simplest.
Algorithms in nature
Everyone constantly solves a lot of variety of tasks with different complexity, some of them are so simple that solved completely automatically, without even being perceived as a specific problem.For example: close the door with a key, wash, eat breakfast, feed the family, and so on. D.
But there are other problems which are so complex that they require long-term thinking, as well as a considerable amount of effort to beginningto find a solution, and then later to achieve this goal.These tasks are: to learn a language, earn a certain amount of money, and others.In other words, for such tasks require much more complex actions, compared to how much they need to accomplish the task, "buy bread", but in fact even the simplest tasks are performed in several steps.
concept, types and properties
in a certain sequence of actions can be described as a procedure for solving a huge number of challenges that people face in their everyday life, and this sequence is represented in the computer as the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm.
One of the most famous of all is the so-called Euclid's algorithm, which is determined using the greatest common divisor of two integers.
It should be noted that, considering the concept of the algorithm and its properties, it is necessary to correctly understand not only the action but also the fact in what order they are executed.It is often such situations occur when you change the order of actions in the algorithm eventually it may be unenforceable under certain circumstances.For example, if you go to the store, the beginning of the algorithm is roughly as follows:
- Go to the shops.
- Choose bread.
- Choose bread.
- Go to the shops.
If we consider the last algorithm, then the originally chosen bread, and then we are going to more precisely defined task in the store, and if you really need us bread is not there, then in that case we have constructed algorithmultimately prove unenforceable.
Types of algorithms may be as follows:
- cyclical.The algorithm, which is present in the ring structure, that is, repetition of various actions.
- Line.The algorithm uses the following structure, that is, actions are arranged one behind the other.
- branching.The algorithm, which uses the structure of the branching when the action is selected depending on whether a certain condition is satisfied.
Properties Properties of the following:
- determination.When setting the same source data several times the same algorithm begins to run, providing the same signal.
- Mass.When the algorithm is not decided by any one task, but many problems of a certain type.
- effectiveness.Using the algorithm, in any case leads to the task.
- Resolution.The algorithm includes a sequence of actions, the implementation of which does not represent any difficulty.
- of course.The sequence of actions of the algorithm can not be unlimited or infinite.
- correctly.If the algorithm is formed to perform a specific task, it should always be to give the corresponding result.
algorithm in computer
When a person gradually looks into computer science and think about what is the concept of the algorithm and its properties, he learns that the algorithm has a mistake, in a sense, is better than that functions, butIt is doing it wrong.After all, if the error is present, then the computer will tell us about this, and we subsequently been able to find it and fix it, and if the same bug that causes the algorithm works correctly, appears only in rare cases, in which case it may appearthe most crucial moment.
How easy is it to make?
For many people, information processing seems to be a fairly simple task, but in fact it is not, because you first need to understand at least that represent the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm, and its performers.This is especially true drawing algorithm, which is required for correct processing.
The simplest example is the user manual for a specific subject.If it is to make unprofessional, then the user can simply break the subject, as it would be wrong to exploit or does not learn to work with it, not to mention the fact that there may be some physical injuries, if we talk about the serious hometechnology.
Many will say that in fact there is nothing complicated to create instructions for the finished device, but in reality it is not so, because in fact, the large majority of people is much easier to do it yourself, how do you explain to someone else, how it's done.
For example, almost every student can easily use a cell phone, as well as all the features in it, and it seems very simple and intuitive.But in fact, not so easy to explain how to use a mobile phone to the man who in life was holding this device, as it will have a lot of questions, and those to which you do not even suspect.It is in this situation would be difficult to explain, in accordance with what are the properties of the concept of the algorithm and the algorithm.The sequence of actions is not clear, and people will not be able to meet them as it is necessary for the normal operation of the device.
What problems might arise?
For example, consider how to make the algorithm for making tea for any robot that basically knows nothing, and for him a complete source of information on the problem - an algorithm.The concept, types, properties - all we know, but for most people a mental model of such an algorithm is approximately the following:
- take the cup.
- put it in tea.
- Pour sugar.
- Pour boiling water.
But in reality, such an algorithm would be virtually impossible to carry out, as the robot is not common sense, and the whole course of action for him is a minimum set of information.
Accuracy Action - the basis of the algorithm
The main thing to understand, considering the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm - the accuracy of the action, because the robot does not know initially, where he was to take the cup, and what exactly you need to take, while even if it takes,he will keep it in his hands, since he did not have the team to put it on the table.Now he will have to put the tea, but it is once again possible to make your hands, but you can with a spoon, you will need to know the number.Thus there is a huge number of different issues that need to be addressed at the stage of construction of the algorithm.
What is it?
Of course, considering the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm, an accurate description can be formed almost indefinitely, but the best in this situation would be similar to the following sequence:
- Take a cup in the cupboard with the word "workers".
- Put the cup on the table in the kitchen down the bottom.
- Get out of the closet to the right of the refrigerator, the containers with the inscription "Sugar" and "tea", and then put them on the table next to the cup.
- From cupboard to get a teaspoon.
- Pour into the cup one full teaspoon of the container with the words "tea" and then two teaspoons of the container with the inscription "Sugar".
- including tea.
- Wait until the kettle to boil, then pour water from it into the cup until it is 2/3 full.
- Gradually stir a teaspoon of liquid in the cup for 30 seconds.
Thus, considering the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm, who performed each action, as well as many other elements can come to an optimal workflow.Even the above algorithm can not be called perfect, and it provides that the robot knows a lot of things, but even in this example we can understand how difficult it is to actually describe certain things that we're well aware from the very childhood.
What you need to know?
First of all there is to how to make the algorithm, it is necessary to determine the order, which has the initial conditions to perform a specific task, and should be aware of what you need to get.By itself, the algorithm is a finite sequence of actions is already in a specific task, which results from the initial information to a certain result.In any case, the primacy of the development of an algorithm of actions belongs to the man and engaged in the execution of these actions are already different people or all sorts of devices, such as satellites, robots, computers, advanced appliances, and recently even some toys to teach them to perform.
Al-Khwarizmi - is the person who first identified the concept of the algorithm and the properties of the algorithm.Grassroots this concept has acquired a certain time when it has received a broader meaning, and has been to determine any precise rules specific action.To date, this concept is perceived by many as one of the most important concepts in science such as computer science, without which it is almost impossible to imagine.
itself Al-Khwarizmi lived in the IX century BC, and it is worth noting the fact that the original Arabic original, outlining his arithmetic works have been lost, but there is a translation, by which Western Europe could eventually become familiar with decimalpositional number system, as well as the basic rules of performing various arithmetic operations.
scientists seek to ensure that the rules which have been formulated to them, were very clear for any competent person.To achieve this in an age when there was no full-fledged mathematical symbolism, it was extremely difficult, but the scientist was able to in his writings eventually achieve a clear and at the same time strict verbal instructions, in which the reader was not able to evade the prescribed tasks, or skip certain actions.
In the Latin translation of the works of scientist setting out in a single book called "Algorizmi said."Over time, people began to gradually forget about the fact that "Algorizmi" is the author of such rules, so that the rules began to be called algorithms.Thus, gradually, "he said Algorizmi" changed and become "algorithm reads."