change in gas composition of the atmosphere - the result of a combination of natural phenomena in nature and human activities.But some of these processes prevails at present?To find out, we first clarify that pollute the air.Its composition is relatively constant over the past years is subject to significant fluctuations.The basic problems of emission control and protection of the purity of the air basin as an example of this work in the cities.
Does the composition of the atmosphere?
Air Pollution ecologists consider changing its averages collected over a long period of observation.They occur as a result of the many impacts of society on the environment, as well as due to natural processes.For example, air pollutants, and altering the gas composition of the atmosphere, formed as a result of breathing, photo- and chemical synthesis in cells of living organisms.
Besides the natural, there is anthropogenic pollution.His sources of emissions can be any production facilities, waste gases communal household sector, transport emissions.This is exactly what air pollution threatens human health and welfare, of the entire environment.The main indicators of the composition of the atmosphere should remain unchanged, such as in the diagram below.
The contents of some components in the atmosphere of a small, but it is taken into account when deciding which substances pollute the air, and which are harmless to living organisms.In the table below, in addition to basic, also includes the permanent components of air, the content of which increases in volcanism, economic activities of the population (of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, methane).
That does not pollute the air?
gas composition of the atmosphere over the oceans, seas, forests and meadows, biosphere reserves varies less, compared to cities.Of course, in the medium of the above natural objects also receives substances.Gas exchange in the biosphere is constant.But in ecosystems dominated by the process, which does not pollute the air.For example, in the woods - photosynthesis of water bodies - evaporation.Bacteria fix nitrogen from the air, the plant was isolated and absorb carbon dioxide.The atmosphere over the oceans and seas saturated with water vapor, iodine, bromine, chlorine.
What pollutes the air?
dangerous for living organisms are very diverse compounds, all known for more than 20,000 polluters biosphere.In an atmosphere of cities, industrial and transportation centers are present simple or complex gaseous substances, aerosols, small solid particles.We list what substances pollute the air:
- carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases (mono- and carbon dioxide);
- sulfur and sulfur dioxide (di- and sulfur trioxide);
- nitrogen compounds (oxides and ammonia);
- methane and other gaseous hydrocarbons;
- dust, soot and particulate matter, for example, in ore mining sites.
What are the sources of emissions?
harmful air pollutants released into the atmosphere not only in the gas and vapor phase, but also in the form of tiny droplets, solid particles of different sizes.Consideration received from enterprises and transport of pollution are specific compounds, their groups (solid, gaseous, liquid).
concentration of fixed and variable components of air varies during the day, according to the seasons.The calculations take into account the content of pollutants atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind direction, as the weather conditions affect the composition of the surface layer of the atmosphere.Changes in the concentrations of most of the components, such as carbon dioxide, do not only occur during the year.An increased amount of CO2 in the last hundred years (greenhouse effect).In some cases, changes in the concentrations of substances due to natural phenomena.It may be volcanic eruptions, spontaneous outputs of poisons out of the ground or water in some areas.But more often to unfavorable changes in atmospheric composition leads human activity.
What pollutes the air on Earth?Natural and anthropogenic sources of emissions of harmful compounds.Recent are fixed (pipe enterprises, boilers, gas station fuel dispensers) and mobile (different modes of transport).Here are the main objects, which come from air pollutants:
- working enterprises of many branches;
- career where mining is carried out;
- cars (air pollution from the combustion of fuels derived from oil, gas or other carbonaceous substances);
- station refueling gaseous and liquid fuels;
- boilers that use fossil fuels and their by-products;
- landfills and landfills where pollutants air, formed as a result of decay, decomposition of industrial and household waste.
agricultural land, such as fields, gardens, orchards, also contribute to a negative change in the composition of the atmosphere.This is due to operation of machinery, fertilizer, spraying pesticides.
What is the main source of air pollution?
do many harmful compounds into the atmosphere during rocket launches, waste incineration, fires in settlements in the forests, fields and steppes.In densely populated regions, the most significant contribution to the change in the composition of the surface layer of the atmosphere contributes vehicles.It accounts, according to various estimates, accounts for 60 to 95% of the gaseous emissions.
What pollutes the air in the city?The population of urbanized countries particularly affected by toxic products of combustion and fuel.In the composition of emissions presence of solid particles, such as soot and lead, the liquid and gaseous compounds of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
factories pollute the air in industrial areas where the development of the industry, processing metal ores, salt, oil, coal and natural gas.The composition of emissions vary depending on the set of branches in one or another region of the country.Urban air pollution often contains combustion products, among them there are a lot of carcinogens, such as dioxin.Smoke comes from forest, steppe and peat fires, burning of leaves and debris.Most plantations are burning wood and waste in the vicinity of cities, but sometimes even directly on the streets ignited leaves and grass.
What substances contain emissions and transport industry?
What pollutes the air in the city?In the industrial centers of work, industrial, transportation, utility and construction companies.Each object individually and collectively have a technological impact on the environment.Often pollutants interact with each other.The most common non-metal oxides are dissolved in water droplets - the so formed "acid" fog and rain.They cause irreparable damage to the environment, human health and the architectural masterpiece.
Gross pollutant emissions in cities and reach hundreds of thousands of tons.The largest volume of toxic compounds coming from the metallurgical, energy, chemical and transportation industries.Plants air toxics: ammonia benzapirenom, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, mercaptan, phenol.As part of a large industrial plant emissions contain 20 to 120 kinds of compounds.To a lesser extent in the formation of harmful compounds combines food and light industries, institutions of education, health and culture.
dangerous to the products of combustion of organic waste?In cities
prohibited burn fallen leaves, grass, pruning, packaging, building materials and other industrial and household waste.Acrid smoke contains substances that may pollute the air.They are harmful to human health, impair the quality of the overall environment.
alarming lack of understanding by individuals and employees of companies that they violate the rules of improvement, exacerbate the already unfavorable ecological situation when burning garbage heaps and manure in their fields, in the courtyards of apartment buildings set fire to waste containers.Very often there are garbage, plastic bottles, film.This smoke is especially harmful because of the thermal decomposition products of polymers.In the Russian Federation for incineration within the boundaries of the settlement penalties.
When burning parts of plants, bones, animal skins, polymers and other organic synthesis are allocated carbon oxides, water vapor, nitrogen compounds bit.But that's not all air pollutants, which are formed during combustion or smoldering waste, household garbage.If the leaves, twigs, grass and other materials wet, it stands out more toxic substances than harmless water vapor.For example, when 1 ton smoldering wet foliage allocated to about 30 kg of CO (carbon monoxide).
standing next to a pile of smoldering garbage - is like to be in the most polluted metropolis street traffic.Risk of carbon monoxide is that it binds hemoglobin.The resulting carboxyhemoglobin can not deliver oxygen to the cells.Other substances that pollute the air, can cause disruption of the bronchial tubes and lungs, poisoning, exacerbation of chronic diseases.For example, inhalation of CO heart operates with increased load because insufficient oxygen being delivered to the tissues.In this case, may worsen cardiovascular disease.Even more dangerous is the combination of carbon monoxide pollutants in industrial emissions, exhaust transport.
Standards pollutant concentrations
Harmful emissions come from iron and steel, coal, oil and gas processing plants, power facilities, construction and utility industries.Radioactive contamination in the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and nuclear power plant in Japan has spread globally.It noted an increase in the content of oxides of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, freon, radioactive and other hazardous emissions in different parts of our planet.Sometimes toxins detected far from the place where the companies that pollute the air.This situation is disturbing and difficult to solve global problems of mankind.
in 1973 the relevant committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed criteria for assessment of ambient air quality in cities.Experts have found that the health of people in the 15-20% depending on the environmental conditions.On the basis of many studies in the XX century it was defined acceptable levels of major pollutants harmless to people.For example, the average annual concentration of suspended particles in the air should be 40 mg / m3.The content of sulfur oxides should not exceed 60 mg / m3.For carbon monoxide the corresponding median - 10 mg / m3 for 8 hours.
What is the maximum permissible concentration (MPC)?
Resolution of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation approved by the health standard detention of nearly 600 hazardous compounds in the atmosphere settlements.It MPC of pollutants in the air line which indicates the absence of adverse effects on people and the sanitary conditions.The regulations listed hazard classes of compounds, the value of their content in the air (mg / m3).These indicators are specified at the new data on the toxicity of individual substances.But that's not all.The paper present a list of 38 substances for which a ban on the release of their high biological activity.
How is the state control in the field of air?
anthropogenic changes in the composition of air lead to negative consequences in the economy, deteriorating health and reduced life expectancy.Problems increase revenues harmful compounds into the atmosphere as the concerned government, state and municipal governments, and the public, ordinary people.
legislation of many countries provides engineering and environmental surveys prior to construction, reconstruction and modernization of almost all objects of the economy.Carried out a valuation of pollutants in the air, carried out measures to protect the atmosphere.Address issues reduce the anthropogenic load on the environment, reducing emissions and discharges of pollutants.Russia has adopted federal laws on environmental protection, air, and other laws and regulations governing the activities in the environmental field.Exercise state environmental control, limited by contaminants carried out regulation of emissions.
What is PIP?
enterprises polluting the air, should make an inventory of sources of harmful compounds into the air.Normally, this work finds its logical continuation in determining the maximum permissible emissions (MPE).The need to obtain this document is related to the valuation of anthropogenic impact on the atmosphere.On the basis of information that are included in the MPE, the company is authorized to emit pollutants into the atmosphere.Data on emission regulations are used to calculate the charges for a negative impact on the environment.
If volume ELVs and permit no, for emissions from sources located within the property industry or any other industry businesses pay in 2, 5, 10 times more.Normalization of pollutants in air leads to a reduction of negative effects on the atmosphere.There is an economic incentive to carry out measures for the protection of nature from her admission to foreign compounds.
Payments for environmental pollution coming from the enterprises accumulated by local and federal authorities in special budgetary environmental funds.Funds spent on environmental activities.
How to clean the air and protect the industrial and other facilities?
cleaning of polluted air is carried out by different methods.On the boiler pipes and processing plants installed filters, there is dust and getter installation.By using the thermal decomposition and oxidation, certain toxic substances are converted to harmless compounds.Capture of harmful gases in the emissions was performed by condensation using sorbents to absorb impurities, catalysts for cleaning.
prospects for activity in the field of air associated with the work on reduction of pollutants in the atmosphere.It is necessary to develop a laboratory monitoring of harmful emissions in the cities, on busy highways.There must be continued to introduce a system for collecting solid particles from the gaseous mixtures in the workplace.Need cheap modern devices for the treatment of emissions of toxic aerosols and gases.In the field of state control requires an increase in the number of posts to check and adjust the emissions of vehicles.Energy industries and motor vehicles should be translated into less harmful for the environment, fuels (such as natural gas, biofuels).When they burned less stands solid and liquid contaminants.
What is the role of green spaces in the purification of the air?
It is difficult to overestimate the contribution of plants in the replenishment of oxygen on Earth, trapping pollution.Woods called "green gold", "lungs of the planet" for the ability of leaves for photosynthesis.This process is the absorption of carbon dioxide and water, the formation of oxygen and starch in the light.Plants emit volatile in the air - substances detrimental effect on disease-causing microbes.
Increase green areas in the cities - one of the most important environmental protection measures.Planted trees, shrubs, herbs and flowers in the yards of the houses, in parks, squares and along roads.Plant for the territory of schools and hospitals, industrial plants.