Now it is difficult to imagine life in towns and cities, as well as industrial enterprises without an established pipeline system.They fed liquids and gases, allow people to heat homes and businesses - to operate successfully.However, benefiting from the existence of gas pipelines, it must be remembered that the gas communication is quite dangerous and fraught with serious damage to their accident.
History of gas pipelines
first used in ancient China.As used bamboo tube, and the overpressure in the pipes and gas was not supplied "gravity".Compounds of bamboo pipes tow pack, such structures allow the Chinese to heat and light their homes, evaporated salt.
first European gas appeared in the second half of the 19th century.The gas then used to create street lighting.The first street lights were oil, and in 1799 Frenchman Le Bon suggested termolampy able to illuminate and heat the room.The idea was not supported by the government, and it has equipped thousands of gas jets his house, which until his death remained an engineer Parisian landmark.Only in 1813, Le Bon disciples failed to start lighting the cities in this way, but it was already in England.In Paris, it fell in six years, in 1819.The fuel used synthetic coal gas.
St. Petersburg began to heat the room, passing the gas through the pipeline in 1835, and Moscow - in 1865.
Types of gas depending on the gas pressure within them and the method of laying a gas pipeline called
construction of pipes, poles and accessories, designed to deliver the gas to the desired location.The gas movement is always under pressure, which depend on the characteristics of each portion.
Pipelines are line and distribution.The first gas is transported long distances from a distribution station to another.The latter are designed to deliver the gas from the distribution station to the place of consumption or storage.The structure of the pipeline can be included as one or more lines connected by a single technological chain.
Trunk pipelines are of two categories, depending on the gas pressure in them.
- first category of the main gas pipelines operated at a pressure up to 10 MPa.
- second category of the main gas pipelines is designed to work with the gas, the pressure of which is up to 2.5 MPa.
distribution pipelines are divided into three groups depending on the gas pressure in them.
- low pressure.The gas is passed to them at 0.005 MPa.
- medium pressure.The transfer gas in such ducts is performed under a pressure of from 0.005 to 0.3 MPa.
- high pressure.Work under pressure of 0.3 to 0.6 MPa.
Another classification allows you to share all pipelines depending on the method of laying on the ground, underwater and surface.
What is the buffer zone of the gas pipeline and for what it is
This land, symmetric with respect to the axis of the pipeline, the width of which depends on the type of pipeline and installed with special instruments.The establishment of security zones of gas pipelines makes it possible to prohibit or restrict the construction of the gas pipeline in the area.The aim of its creation is to create normal working conditions for the pipeline, its regular maintenance, to preserve the integrity and minimize the consequences of potential accidents.
There are "rules of protection of trunk pipelines," governing the establishment of security zones for different pipelines, which include pipelines and transporting natural gas or other gases.
in the buffer zone are allowed to conduct agricultural works, but prohibited from building.Work on the reconstruction of existing buildings, structures and networks must be agreed with the provider of maintenance and operation of the pipeline.Among the works that are not allowed to spend in the buffer zone, is also equipping the cellars, compost pits, welding operations, installation of fences that prevent free access to the pipes, the creation of landfills and storage facilities, installation of stairs, based on the gas pipeline, as well as the device unauthorized connections.
Features buffer zone of high pressure gas pipelines
Protected zone of high pressure gas pipeline of the 1st and 2nd category settling same.Their function - supply of gas to distribution networks of low and medium pressure.
- high pressure gas pipeline of the 1st category work with gas at a pressure of 0.6 MPa to 1.2 MPa if they move natural gas or gas mixture.For petroleum gases transported in liquefied form, the pressure must not exceed 1.6 MPa.Their protection zone of 10 m on both sides of the axis of the pipeline in case of gas distribution pipelines and 50 meters for the main high pressure gas pipelines that transport natural gas.If the transportation of liquefied gas is carried out, a security zone is 100 m.
- high pressure gas pipeline 2nd category transported natural gas, gas mixture and liquefied gas at a pressure of 0.3 to 0.6 MPa.They buffer zone of 7 meters, and if the main gas pipeline - 50 m for natural gas and 100 - for LPG.
Organization buffer zone of high pressure gas pipeline
Protected zone of high pressure gas pipeline operator and the organization is organized on the basis of the project, specifying the shooting performed after completion of construction and permits.To maintain it, the following events.
- Every six months, the organization that operates the high-pressure gas pipelines, is obliged to remind the individuals and organizations that exploit the land in protected areas, about the features of these land plots.
- Every year, the course must be specified and, if necessary, corrected all the documents issued by it.Protected zone of high pressure gas pipeline respectively specified.
- Protected zone of high pressure gas pipeline is marked on its linear sections by means of columns, spaced not more than 1000 m (Ukraine) and not more than 500 meters (Russia), the column must be marked and all the angles of rotation of the tube.
- the point of intersection of the pipeline with highways and other communications required to be marked with special signs, notifying that there is a zone of alienation of high pressure gas pipeline.Stopping vehicle within the designated protection zone is prohibited.
- Each column is supplied with two placards with information about the depth of the track, as well as its direction.The first plate is mounted vertically and the other with marks mileage - at an angle of 30 degrees to allow visual monitoring from the air.
Features buffer zone of medium pressure gas pipelines
Protected zone medium pressure gas pipeline under the regulations is 4 meters.As for the tracks of high pressure, it is set on the basis of technical documentation provided to organizations - designers.The basis for the creation of security zones and applying it to the master plan is the act issued by the local government or the executive branch.
Protected zone medium pressure gas pipeline implies the existence of restrictions similar to those specified for the routes of high pressure.To perform any excavation in the buffer zone is required to obtain permission to organizations serving this section of the pipeline.
Marking protected zones for medium pressure is similar.On the poster must be placed signs with information about the name of the pipeline, linking the road, distance from the plate to the pipe axis, the size of the protected zone, phones to communicate with the institutions serving this section of the pipeline.Boards are allowed to be placed on transmission towers, communication networks and test columns.
Features buffer zone of low pressure pipelines
The main function of the low-pressure gas pipelines to provide gas supply to residential buildings and structures, which can be either built-in or freestanding.Transportation with them a large amount of gas is unprofitable, so large consumers, public utilities such networks do not use.
protected zone of low pressure pipeline is 2 m in both sides of the axis of the laying pipe.These pipelines are the least dangerous, so buffer zone around them is minimal.Restrictions on its operation are similar to those introduced for other types of protective zones of the pipeline.
protected zone of low pressure pipeline is marked similarly to the previous two.If the label on the anchors, have a yellow color, laid pipe is made of polyethylene.If it is green, the pipe material - steel.The tablet does not have a typical high-pressure pipelines red edging above.
protected zone of the outer pipeline
called outer gas pipeline located outside of buildings to the diaphragm or other switching device, or to the case, through which the entry into the building at the underground version.It may be located under the ground, be overhead or ground.
For outdoor gas pipelines, the following rules for determining protection zones:
- protected zone runs along the outside of the pipeline is 2 m on each side of the axis.
- If the pipeline is underground and constructed from polyethylene pipes, and for marking the route used copper wire, the protective zone of underground pipeline in this case is by finding a wire 3 m, and on the other side - 2 m.
- If the pipeline is arranged in the permafrost soil, regardless of pipe material its buffer zone is 10 meters either side of the axis of the tube.
- If the pipeline is inter-settlement and crosses woodland and areas overgrown with bushes, its buffer zone of 3 meters either side of the axis.They are arranged in the form of rides, a width of 6 meters.
- Protected zone of gas pipelines, situated among tall trees, their height is equal to the maximum that the tree does not fall could cause a violation of the integrity of the pipeline.
- protected zone of the outer gas pipeline running through the water of the river, lake or reservoir is 100 m. It can be represented visually as the distance between two parallel planes passing through the conditional border lines.
How is the security zone for a particular pipeline
protected zone of the gas pipeline is among the territories with a special regime of land use.At the same time, these objects exist sanitary protection zone, which sets rules for everything SanPiN 2.2.1 / 22.214.171.1240-03.
According to Appendix 1 of these regulations, sanitary zone of high pressure gas pipeline depends on the pressure in the pipe, its diameter, and the type of buildings and structures, in relation to which the calculated distance.
lowest sanitary zone of rivers and other bodies of water as well as water intake and irrigation facilities is 25 m for the main gas pipelines of any diameter and type.
largest protected area of high pressure gas pipeline is necessary if we are talking about the gas pipeline 1 Class of 1200 mm diameter in the cities, suburban settlements and other crowded places.In this case, the length of the sanitary zone is 250 m.
more detailed information on the sanitary-protection zones of trunk pipelines natural gas and LPG can be found in the relevant tables in this document.For highways, transporting liquefied natural gas, sanitary zones increased significantly.
Violation of the protected zone of the gas pipeline.Legal and environmental impacts
Violation of the protected zone of the gas pipeline could cause a serious industrial accident, fire or explosion.Their cause may be unauthorized excavation work in protected areas without the consent of the organization serving the gas pipeline, falling trees, damaged cars.
At best, there will be a violation of the insulation, at worst - will appear on the tube cracks and other defects, which over time will cause gas leaks.Such defects may not occur immediately, and only with time cause an emergency condition.
damaged pipelines due to violations of security zones is punished by a major administrative fine, which depends on the extent of the damage.Demolition of buildings and structures built on the territory of the protected zones, by decision of the Administrative Court.
Keeping unauthorized excavation, unauthorized planting of trees and shrubs, organizing sports events, placing fire sources, construction of buildings, development of sand pits, as well as fishing, works on deepening and cleaning of the bottom and the device watering in the place where the underwater section of the pipeline shall be punishedfines of 5000 rubles.
Protection zones in the design of gas pipelines: land acquisition and improvement
determine which security zone of the gas pipeline should be applied in each case, rules will help to protect the gas distribution networks.Usually this documentation together with other approvals granted by designers.The question of who will lead the coordination of the project with the services engaged in network operations, as well as with local authorities, defined by the contract for performance of work.The organization performing the project should have a license for these types of jobs.
first step in creating a buffer zone is to perform control of the executive survey.Her main goal is validation of bindings and their compliance with the project documentation.
result of this survey is to clarify the coordinates of the characteristic points of the final track, the location, the number and geometry of the elements and parts of the pipeline, as well as established by the regulatory settlements, instrumentation, hydraulic fracturing and the GRU, towers and other structures.
Protection zones for gazoraspredelyayuschih networks governed by rules approved by the Decree of the Government 20.11.2000 №878.
Protection zones of gas lines are regulated by the Rules approved by the Ministry of Energy and Gostekhnadzor 29.04.1992 (№9) 22.04.1992.
The result of this work is a map or a plan for the property land, which is subject to consultation with the owners or users of land on which the pipeline passes.One copy of the land use cases in this area is transferred to the state authorities of the land registry.