Rape - widely used in agriculture and culture.It is interesting that the plant is nowhere found in the wild-growing form, although it is known to people for a long time.
In the scientific world there is an assumption that rape originated from crosses of winter colza and kale.Where did it happen - it is unknown, the debate among botanists concerning the alleged rape of origin are ongoing.
This plant of the cabbage family used in three main areas: fodder, food and maintenance.Rape has an extensive root system and has the ability to improve the quality and structure of the soil to increase its fertility.Therefore, in the fields and on private farms often use rape as a green manure.
properties of green manure rape
highly valued ability rape rapidly build a huge amount of green matter in the cold spring and autumn periods.Biomass rape, easily decaying, easily digestible becomes a valuable fertilizer, enriching the soil with phosphorus, sulfur, organic matter, humus.Legume green manure, it is second only to the content of nitrogen.
Rape as green manure, on its nutritional abilities can compete even with the manure.Due to the high content of essential oils, he heals the soil and protects the different crop yields from pests and pathogens.Besides rape - as a green manure - successfully suppresses weed growth, so it is often planted in between rows of perennial fruit and berry crops, especially strawberries.Solid crops contribute to the binding of nitrate leaching and reduce them to the ground water.
There spring and winter forms of plants that can sometimes move from one to another.Winter rape is more productive than the spring, so it is more profitable to cultivate.
As winter green manure is the precursor form of seedlings for vegetable crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, peppers and others, with the exception of cabbage and other cruciferous and clover.Note that rapeseed can not be sown after these plants.This is due to the fact that they have a common disease and exposed to attacks of the same pest.In addition, rape as a green manure should not be used in areas where it is supposed beet planting because it is the distributor of nematodes that affect the roots.But the potato crops and he gives a considerable increase in yield.
Cultivation of winter rape is recommended in areas where medium and heavy-textured soils contain sufficient for this culture of humus.Considered most suitable black soil or fertilizer sandy and loamy soil with a neutral reaction.
sowing winter rape produced towards the end of August after the harvest of the main crops, but not later than, or of the seedlings can vymerznut.Before the winter the plant should reach 25 cm in height and have at least 6-8 leaves.Seedlings emerge in 4-5 days.Rape enough frost, love of light and does not tolerate shade, likes moisture, but is afraid of waterlogging.
By the technology of growing winter canola presented a lot of requirements that must be met in order to fully realize the potential productivity of the culture.In this sense, less demanding spring rape.
green manure crops are sown from the end of March.However, the spring sowing period must be chosen so that the seedlings do not pomerzli during cold snaps.If the soil has sufficient moisture, rapeseed can be sown several times during the summer, it promotes the rational use of green mass and lengthening the duration of the green belt.
Within a half months rape grows up to 30 cm, and blooms, and then mow it, and the land is treated.After that, repeat sowing.Using rape as a green manure, crop rotation must be observed - alternate with other crop plants, green-manures.In the same place it is possible to return no sooner than after 4 years.
rape cultivated area increased from year to year.This is due to the high profitability and cost-effective culture.