reforms in education - a topic for intense debate.Among the popular activities of lawmakers associated with this sector, - the introduction of an effective institution to enter into employment contracts.For the educational sector such initiative is unusual - mainly due to the fact that the supposed evaluation of school teachers, on the basis of some objective criteria.What is an effective contract?How difficult can it be the introduction of Russian in schools?
emphasis on quality education
main proclaimed goal of Russian legislators, who in turn introduced a term such as "effective in the formation of the contract", - increasing the income level of educators, as well as improving the quality of teaching subjects in schools.At the same time, according to many experts, the authorities decided to make the accent on the second goal, as the income of teachers in general over the past few years have grown.Just as, in particular, to improve the infrastructure facilities - due to the increase of budget financing.Now the turn is likely, says the legislator, improving the efficiency of education.
essence of effective contract
basic idea, in order to realize that there was an effective deal in education - to tie economic indicators (ie salary of teachers) the criteria for the quality of its work.It is about drawing up an employment contract with the relevant structures and conditions, transparent and understandable to every teacher.
evolution of the introduction of new practices
the first time the idea that the teacher's salary makes sense to place depending on the quality of its work, the general public became known in the late 2000s.In 2012 was launched one of the first stages of the program, the basic principles of which were formed in the presidential decree "On measures for realization of the state social policy."
first developed targeted performance benchmarks, especially school staff in senior positions.At this stage in the educational institutions worked out the structure of the contracts effective correlative with the specifics of the implementation of labor functions of all professionals.In the third stage of the program it is assumed that an effective teacher contract will be implemented on a mass scale in labor practices.The approximate date by which this task must be completed - in 2018.In some regions of Russian schools and other budget institutions started developing the educational sphere reflecting the transition to new standards of "road maps."According to them, the system effectively in the formation of the contract will be implemented.
term "effective contract", however, still does not appear in the Russian legislation.It is found in the media, in some departmental recommendations, but as such consolidation in the federal regulations have not yet received.Thus, according to some experts, the meaning of such a phenomenon as an effective deal in education - in structuring the employment contract (the content of which, in turn, is governed by the relevant Code) so that, on the basis of the text, it was clear what the relationship betweensalaries of teachers and quality of teaching.
essence of the initiative
But if the law does not say what an effective contract in education, what is its possible symptoms based on the nature of the program initiative, which was discussed above?Experts believe that the distinctive specificity of employment contracts under the new system can be characterized by the following features.
- Firstly, each institution should have benchmarks in terms of performance targets at the level of the state task (which is formulated in a correct and understandable to a specific form of institution) higher authority.
- Second, the shape of the contract effectively in education must be drawn up in the proper degree of logical and structured way.So that each teacher saw what specific topics for its activities there and what criteria they should adhere to the standards in the educational process.Adapted to the program new labor contracts must fully reflect the responsibilities of the school, the evaluation criteria and the payment of his labor.
- Third, schools must have the resources necessary to perform the work required quality teachers.That is, when it comes to in-depth study of the geography, the classrooms should be provided with appropriate cards or have access to appropriate quality electronic resources.If you need to study the literature on the example of rare works, that such books should be available in the school library.
What, in fact, expect a legislator by introducing an effective contract of employment in education?According to some experts, the objectives of the authorities may be associated not only with an increase in the efficiency of payment, but also to impart the teaching profession particularly attractive, especially for young professionals.Who want to see perspective in the choice of this or that sphere of activity.
effective contract of employment with proper preparation of it and, more importantly, with proven its effectiveness in practice can play a positive role in attracting the attention of the prospective specialists.
practical transition to a system of correlation between the quality of education and wages of employees of schools could be hindered by the lack of standardization in the approach to the evaluation of teachers.Criteria for effective contract formation in general is sufficient framework.The rules of remuneration, as many experts believe, even now, are established sometimes not quite objectively.There are precedents when the teacher in a non-comparable level of professional training have the same salary.Or very different at comparable qualifications.
criteria effective in the formation of a contract - is not the only problematic aspect of innovation.The fact that not all the teachers themselves are willing to change.Even those who, because of bias assessments can be paid less than they could.The point here is that they believe that the teaching profession - is not one of those that are subject to some kind of measurement in rational terms, or other criteria in relation to the indicators.A lot, according to school teachers, given the context of the students outside the main lessons - things like attention, education, separation of experience in solving some problems.For an effective contract formation can not answer.
Another group of possible problems in the implementation of innovations - the risks associated with excessive bureaucracy.The fact that the implementation of the program of translation teachers effective contract it comes to distribution, especially budget financing.Controlling structures of the Ministry of Education and the municipal industrial structures are likely to be willing to monitor the effectiveness of development funds from the treasury.This is likely to be accompanied by the need to make numerous accounting documents - and to do so is likely to be teachers themselves.Most likely, during working hours.And it may happen that the teacher can be more motivate to make a nice report than properly prepare for the lesson.
We have already said that standardized (adopted at the level of the federal law) the criteria that must be contained in the employment contracts, is not produced.There are only recommended methodological guidance.Here are some of them.
1. The shape of the contract effectively in education must be made so that the performance measures were generally mutually equilibrium.That is not desirable in the preparation of the relevant criteria to make the slope at any particular.Because as a teacher, absorbed in work aimed at compliance with them can lose sight of the implementation of other important tasks.Key performance criteria should be worked out on the basis of equal their significance.
2. Performance indicators should be specified, and not to sound abstract.This is not necessarily any figures - in fact, too much to get involved in the quantitative characteristics, as some experts believe, is not always appropriate.Do not put a performance indicator, for example, estimates the number of "excellent" for a quarter.The teacher can, if so desired, to put it as anything much.However, the criteria must be formulated so that upon performance of a teacher such a work it is uniquely determined as effective.For example, it may be working to ensure full implementation of the homework for literature.The criterion of effectiveness - as an option, no deuces for undone homework diaries.
3. Verifiable indicators of quality.That is, they, as well as the relevant criteria should be of such a nature to the school management to uniquely identify their credibility.For example, it is not the best indicator of quality - conducting lessons in a friendly atmosphere, but it is valid - using psychophysical methods of unloading at the end of training 3 times a week.
Among experts, there are two points of view, reflecting the attitude of emphasis in the development of the criteria in question.In accordance with the first - the school should approach the characterization of the quality as much as possible locally, given the specificity of the tasks assigned to a specific institution.Another view suggests that excessive localization of trouble, first of all, cooperation with the control authorities, resulting in the same risk of bureaucracy can only grow - such departments will pay more attention to educational institutions.So maybe it makes sense to be guided by the standards that are set at the level of the founders of the state and municipal schools.
Making effective contract
try to explore the nuances of the practical implementation of such a school in the document element, as in the formation of an effective contract.Sample filling must meet the criteria of the Labour Code, for hiring employees for permanent employment may be under exclusive contract regulations under the Labour Code.Next nuance, which should include effective contract in education, fill pattern which will be implemented in the school - in fact, the criteria.Any strict legal guidelines, as we said above, is not provided.However, we can take as a basis a number of guidelines on the basis of departmental letters of the Ministry of Education.
So effective implementation of the contract in education, a model of which we are now studying must include quality indicators, as well as the criteria by which to assess the compliance of the employee given school goals.In terms of documenting the sources of relevant parameters can appear as an annex to the employment contract.
Take a variant in which the task is to determine the effectiveness of the guidance professionals, as appropriate guidelines developed to date, not only in theory, they introduced many Russian schools in practice, in the first phase of the program.Director of almost all Russian schools know what is effective in the formation of a contract simply because they have already signed it.They have real experience in the framework of compliance with key quality parameters.In turn, if we need to make a post adapted for effective contract teachers in education, such a sample would contain too many theoretical formulations.
In those contained in the letters of the Ministry of Education quality indicators designed for school administrators, are the following.
Firstly, this line-up of educational institution relevant legislation.What criteria can be in assessing the corresponding figure?The Ministry points out the following:
- no (or reduced dynamics) regulations by the supervisory authorities;
- no complaints from any inspection authorities;
- state or local government job is done in full;
- September 1, the school is ready for the new school year.
Secondly, it is the satisfaction of parents and students with the quality of school education services.Criteria:
- percentage of pupils and parents, who gave a positive assessment of the activities of the school for the year or a quarter (based on the data anonymous surveys, for example);
- no complaints at meetings.
Third, it may be information openness of educational institutions.Criteria:
- the functioning of the school site;
- publish key details of the accounting and financial-economic profile;
- informing parents about events and effectiveness of the school in the key areas of work.
Fourth, the quality indicator may be to attract young professionals.The criteria are:
- the percentage of young professionals in the state school;
- researched effective incentive mechanism of teachers, has just come to an educational institution;
- presence of internal mentoring programs.
This is a very effective example of the conditional contract in education in terms of quality indicators and their respective criteria.It reflects, as we have said above, the specifics of the management of the school.But a rough guide mainly in the aspect of the structure of the corresponding agreement we got.
So, if we make the contract effective in education, the fill pattern of the document will have to meet the following basic requirements.
1. Key provisions of the agreement should fully reflect the provisions of the Labour Code.This - the main part of the contract.
2. must be prescribed quality parameters and criteria on which conformity assessment is carried out of the employee his school duties.It duly executed application to the employment contract.
Among the most useful for the employees of the Russian school of sources of law, which can help to explore more effective in the formation of the contract (which it is, what is that will keep), you can specify the letter the Ministry of Education.
According to some experts, the standards that are supposed to be published at the beginning of the mass transfer specialist schools to work on new criteria can be applied not only to the secondary schools, but also a different kind of educational institutions.Thus, it can be implemented effective contracts in preschool education, despite the fact that the specificity of kindergartens, of course, makes the work of their staff sufficiently dissimilar to the objectives and tasks facing teachers.
Also, as noted by some experts, the efficiency should be the basis for the provision of educational services not only at the state and municipal schools, but also in private schools.And those who, because of their profile are institutions of additional education.For working professionals employed in such institutions may also require special preparation of employment contracts.Effective contract teacher of additional education is likely to be characterized by other criteria than that of the average employee of the school.
Above we noted that not all teachers are happy with the initiative of the legislator regarding the translation work effectively.What accounts for such sentiments?One of the reasons we called - unwillingness of many teachers to share the work of the one that is subject to rational assessment and that which is done is specific values, however, are expected to benefit the educational process.
Another point of disagreement on this issue - the proportionality of the tasks entrusted to the teachers, and the magnitude of the required resources in terms of labor and time.