Types and methods of perception

daily per person collapses a huge amount of information.We are faced with new situations, objects, phenomena.Some people with no problems coping with the flow of knowledge and successfully used it to their advantage.Others are barely able to remember anything.In many ways, this situation is due to a person belonging to a particular type of method of perception.If it is served in a difficult human form, her treatment would be extremely difficult.

What is information?

concept of "information" has the abstract value and its definition largely depends on the context.Translated from Latin, it means "explanation", "view", "acquaintance".Most often, the term "information" refers to the new facts that are perceived and understood by man, as well as useful.During the processing of the information obtained for the first time people have some knowledge.

perceived information?

human information perception - is acquainted with the phenomena and objects through their effects on various organs of the senses.Analyzing the feedback of an object or situation in the organs of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, the individual gets some idea about them.Thus, the basis in the process of perception - our five senses.At the same time actively involved person's past experience and prior knowledge.Referring thereto, the resulting information can be attributed to the known phenomena or isolated from the total mass in a separate category.The methods are based on the perception of information of certain processes related to the human psyche:

  • thinking (seeing or hearing an object or phenomenon, people starting to think, to realize what he encountered);
  • it (to name the object of perception);
  • feelings (different types of reactions to the objects of perception);
  • will (a person's ability to organize the process of perception).


information on this parameter can be divided into the following types:

  • Text .It is represented in the form of various characters that, combining with each other, allow to receive words, phrases, sentences in any language.
  • numeric .This information provided numbers and characters that express a certain mathematical operation.
  • PA .It is directly speaking through which information is transmitted from one person to another, and different record.
  • Graphic .It includes charts, graphs, drawings, and other images.

perception and presentation of information are inextricably linked.Each person tries to choose that variant supply data that will provide the best of their understanding.

way of perceiving human information

Available person has a few such ways.They are determined by the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.In this regard, there is a classification of information by the process of perception:

  • visual;
  • sound;
  • tactile;
  • taste;
  • olfactory.

visual information is perceived via eyes.Thanks to them, the human brain receives various visual images, which are then processed there.Hearing is essential for the perception of the information received in the form of sounds (speech, noise, music signals).The bodies responsible for the ability to touch perception of tactile information.Receptors located on the skin, allow to estimate the temperature of an object, the type of its surface form.Taste information to the brain from the receptors on the tongue and is converted into a signal in which a person understands what is the product of: sour, sweet, bitter or salty.Smell also helps us in the knowledge of the outside world, allowing to distinguish and identify various smells.The main role in the perception of information plays a vision.It accounts for about 90% of the knowledge gained.Sound way of perceiving information (broadcast, for example) is about 9%, and the remaining senses are responsible for only 1%.

types of perception

The same information obtained in any particular way, is perceived by each person differently.One minute after reading one of the pages of the book can easily summarize its content, the other did not remember almost anything.But if such a person to read the same text aloud, he easily reproduce in memory heard.These differences determine the features of perception by people each of which has a certain type.There are four:

  • Visuals.
  • Audialy.
  • kinesthetic.
  • discrete.

often very important to know what type of perception is dominant for a person and what he represents.This greatly improves mutual understanding between people, makes it possible to quickly and fully convey the necessary information to his companion.


These are people for whom the principal organ of the senses in the process of learning about the world and the perception of information is sight.They remember well the new material, if they see it in the form of text, images, charts and graphs.In a speech to visual common words, one way or another connected with the characteristics of the object of their external features, the very function of view ("look", "light", "bright", "we will see", "I believe").Such people usually say out loud, fast, actively gesticulate while.Visuals pay great attention to their appearance, the environment.


audialov much easier to digest what they once heard and not seen a hundred times.Features of perception these people are in their ability to listen well and remember once said in a conversation with colleagues or relatives, or in a lecture at the Institute or at the workshop.Audialy have a large vocabulary, nice to talk to them.These people know how to perfectly convince interlocutor in a conversation with him.Active pastime prefer calm exercises, like listening to music.

kinesthetic sense of touch, smell, and taste play an important role in the process of kinesthetic perception of information.They tend to touch and feel the, try the taste of the subject.Relevance for kinestetikov and physical activity.In a speech of such people are often found words describing feelings ("soft", "my feeling", "miss").For a child-kinestetika needs physical contact with loved ones.Important to him hugs and kisses, comfortable clothes, soft and clean bed.


way of perceiving information directly related to the human senses.The majority of people get the knowledge by means of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste.However, the perception of the types of information include, and one that is associated primarily with thinking.People perceive the world in this way is called discrete.They are quite small, and they only occur in adults as in children the logic of development is not enough.At the young age of the main ways of perception is discrete - visual and auditory.Only with age they are beginning to think about what they see and hear at the same time opening up new knowledge.

type of perception and learning

methods of perception people largely determine the form of training, which will be the most effective for them.Of course, there are no people who could gain new knowledge entirely with a single sensory organ or group, for example, touch and smell.All of them serve in the role of perception.However, knowing which senses are dominant in a particular person, it enables others to quickly bring to it the necessary information, and the man himself can effectively organize the process of self-education.

visuals, for example, need to submit any new information in a readable form on the illustrations.In this case, they are much better remember it.Visuals are usually doing well in the exact sciences.Even as a child they are perfectly folded puzzle, known to many geometric shapes, well painted, features, build with blocks or constructor.

Audialy, by contrast, is easier to perceive information from the spoken language.It can be a conversation with anyone, lecture audio.When learning a foreign language for audialov preferred audio courses than printed tutorial.If you still need to remember the written text, it is better to pronounce aloud.

kinestetik very mobile.They are difficult to concentrate on anything for a long time.So hard for people to grasp the material obtained at a lecture or a textbook.The process of remembering will be faster if kinesthetic learn to connect theory and practice.It is easier to study sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, where a specific scientific term or the law can be presented as the results of experiments conducted in the laboratory.

discrete takes a bit longer than other people to take note of the new information.They first have to understand it, relate to their past experiences.Such people can, for example, record a lecture teacher on tape, then listen to it a second time.Among discrete many men of science as rational and logical for them above all else.Therefore, in the process of learning it will be closest to those items which determines the accuracy of the perception of information - computer science, for example.

role in communicating

types affect perception of the information and the way in which to communicate better with the man, so he listened to you.For the visual appearance is very important interlocutor.The slightest carelessness can push him, and then will be completely no matter what he says.Talking with visuals need to pay attention to his facial expressions, talking quickly with gestures, to reinforce the conversation schematic drawings.

In a conversation with audialom be present words that are close to him ("listen to me", "sounds great", "it says a lot").The perception of human information-audialom depends largely on how the interviewee says.The tone of voice should be calm and pleasant.An important conversation with audialom better to postpone, if you are very cold.Such people do not suffer as shrill notes in her voice.

Negotiations with kinestetik should be done in a room with a comfortable temperature of air, a pleasant smell.So sometimes people need to touch the other person, so they better understand what they saw or heard.Do not wait for kinestetika rapid decision immediately after the interview.He takes time out to listen to their feelings and to realize that he is doing everything right.

Dialogue increments should be built on the principle of rationality.It is best to operate with strict scientific facts, rules.For the increment is more understandable language of numbers.