The letter "d": hard or soft?

letter "d": hard or soft?This question is often asked by students who need to understand the words according to the rules of phonetics.The answer is you get a little further.


Before you talk about what is the letter "d" (soft or hard), you should find out why all the letters of the Russian alphabet are divided on such grounds.

fact that each word has its own sound shell, which is made up of individual sounds.It should be noted that the sound of a full expression correlates to its value.At the same time in different words and their forms completely different sound effects.And the sounds themselves have no meaning.However, they play an important role in the Russian language.Indeed, thanks to them, we can easily distinguish words.Here is an example:

  • [home] - [dama'] - [do'ma];
  • [m'el] - [m'el '], [that] - [there], [home] - [that].


Why do we need information about what is the letter "d" (hard or soft)?During the phonetic analysis of words is very important to show the transcription, which describes its sound.In such a system, it adopted the following characters:

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[] - this designation called brackets.They certainly put to denote transcription.

['] - it's stress.He put, if a word has more than one syllable.

[b '] - a kind of a comma is placed next to the letter and indicates its softness.

way, while the phonetic analysis of words often used, and the next character - [j].As a rule, they represent the sound of the letter "d" (sometimes used and a character like [d]).

letter "d": consonant or a vowel?

As you know, in the Russian language all sounds are divided into consonants and vowels.They are completely different perceived and pronounced.

  • Vowels - those sounds, while the pronunciation of which the air passes freely and easily through the mouth, without encountering in its path are no barriers.Moreover, they can pull, using them can shout.If you put a hand to her throat, then the job of ligaments (voice) during pronunciation of vowels can be quite easy to feel.In Russian, there are 6 stressed vowels, namely: [a], [e], [v], [s], [o] and [u].
  • consonants - these are the sounds during the pronunciation of which air on its way meets the obstacle, namely the bow or crack.Their appearance determines the nature sounds.Typically, the gap is formed in the pronunciation of [s] [w], [z] and [x].This tip of the tongue approaches the upper or lower teeth.Presented consonants can be pulled (for example, [x-x-x], [z-z-z]).As for the bond, such a barrier is formed by the closure of the speech organs.Air, or rather its flow dramatically overcomes her, so the sound is energetic and concise.That is why they are called explosive.By the way, it is impossible to pull them (try it yourself: [n] [b], [t], [d]).

addition to these consonants in Russian language and are as follows: [m], [d], [B], [f], [r] [l] [r], [h] [i][x].As you can see, there are many more than vowels.

voiced and voiceless sounds

On a parity of voice and noise consonants can be voiced and voiceless.At the same time during the pronunciation of the voiced and heard the noise, and the voice and the deaf - only noise.

way, many consonants formed between a pair of voicelessness and voicing [a] - [d], [B] - [n] [h] - [c], [d] - [t], [f] - [in] and others. In total, 11 such Russian language pairs.However, there are sounds that have no pairs on the grounds.These include [d] [p] [n] [n] [m] - is unmatched calls, [h] and [i] - is unmatched deaf.

soft and hard consonants

As you know, the consonants differ not only in voicing or, conversely, voicelessness, and softness and hardness.This property is the overriding feature of the second sound.

example, the letter "d": hard or soft?To answer this question, we should consider each attribute separately:

  • During the pronunciation of soft consonants whole language moves forward slightly, and its middle portion is slightly raised.
  • During the pronunciation of hard consonants whole language literally pulled back.

It should be noted that many consonants formed between a pair on grounds such as softness and hardness [d] - [e '], [f] - [n'] and so forth. In total there are 15 such pairs.However, there are sounds that have no pairs on the grounds.What letters are hard consonants unpaired?These include the following - [w], [g] and [q].With regard to soft unpaired, it [u '] [h'], and [D '].

designation on the letter

Now you know the information of the letter "d" hard or soft.But this raises a new question: "As indicated by the softness of the sounds in the letter?"To do this, use very different ways:

  • letter "e", "w", "e", "i" after consonant (except "g", "m" and "n") indicate that theseconsonants are soft.Here is an example: dya'dya - [d'a'd'a] Aunt - [t'o't'a].
  • letter "i" standing after consonants (not counting the "g", "m" and "n") suggests that these consonants are soft.Here is an example: mi'ly - [m'i'ly '] sheet - [l'ist] ni'tki - [n'i'tk'i].
  • Soft sign ("L") after consonants (not counting the "w" and "w") is a measure of grammatical form.It also shows that consonants are soft.Example Example: distance - [gave '], stranded - [m'el'], please - [proz'ba].

As you can see, the softness of consonants in the letter transmitted not individual letters and their combinations with vowels "e", "w", "e", "i" and the soft sign.That is why the phonetic analysis of words, experts recommend to pay attention to adjacent characters.

As for the vowel "th", it is always soft.In this regard, in its transcription is denoted as follows: [D '].That is a comma, indicating the softness of sound necessary to put times.This is subject to the same rule, and [u '], [h'].


As you can see, there is nothing difficult to make a correct phonetic analysis of a word.To do this, just need to know what the vowels and consonants, voiced and voiceless, as well as soft and hard.For a better understanding of how to arrange the transcription, we give some detailed examples.

1. The word "hero."It consists of two syllables, the second is a shock.We make the analysis:

g - [z '] - voiced consonant and soft.

e - [and] - unstressed vowels.

p - [p] - voiced consonant, odd and hard.

about - [on] - stressed vowels.

th - [D '] - voiced consonant, gypsy and soft.

Total: 5 letters and 5 sounds.

2. The word "tree."It consists of three syllables, and the second is a shock.We make the analysis:

etc. - [d '] - voiced consonant and soft.

e - [and] - unstressed vowels.

p - [p] - voiced consonant, gypsy and soft.

e - [e'] - stressed vowels.

in - [in '] - voiced consonant and soft

s - [-]

e - [D'] - voiced consonant, gypsy and soft and [e] - vowel unstressed;

to - [f] - voiceless consonant, and a solid pair.

Total: 8 8 letters and sounds.