Russian religious thinker Vladimir.Solovyev in one of the arguments offered to make an imaginary trip inside our brain, in order to see what is happening there.During this exciting excursion could be seen as in motion a complex mechanism of thought as "the smallest brain particles" interact with each other as electrical outbreaks occur in different parts of the brain.However, if you compare what is happening in our mind, that we see in the structures of our brains, then immediately it may seem that these are two completely different processes.It comes to this conclusion Vl.Solovyov: "What would have seen the outside observer?He would have seen the structure of the brain ...., But this would be quite similar to the image that you currently represent at this moment, often without knowing anything about the movements of the brain and electrical currents.At the same time it is only an outside observer, and saw right away it follows that between the two there is no formal identity. "In other words, the human brain, and his whole body is a well-tuned machine, arranged very difficult.Some parts of this machine is driven more to the body move, work, experienced sensory, eat, procreate.The body is just a movement of matter, a compound material particles into a single entity, whereas our consciousness, thoughts, the mind does not have a physical nature.
This conclusion comes dualists, on the grounds that the idea was born in the mind, does not have a material nature.For example, the chair on which we sit, eimeet clear signs of a material object: the position, shape and color.You can touch it, feel it move.The image of the chair that arises in our mind even when his lack of sensory perception, not the physical object in the strict sense.Imaginary chair can not be felt by the senses, feel it as real.In addition, he said, if we choose to make, easy to disperse in our mind, as if it had never existed.We can, again, if desired, to make various changes in the imaginary image of the table, to change its shape, color, whereas the real table, as an object of the material world will be no change in its place, as no physical action, he did not undergo.
Consciousness dualists always been regarded as something whole, inseverable.Thereby it is qualitatively different from that of the body, which is a collection of individual physiological processes.The brain registers the external individual existence, consciousness unites data from the brain in the whole and harmonious view of the world.The mechanism consists of various parts, it requires a single mind, to give his work a certain direction, to determine the goals and objectives.That consciousness has become such a unifying principle, a prerequisite for ensuring the unity of mental life.Without this unity of our mind would be a sum of experiences, unrelated, that is sure to split our personality.At the same time, we see that it is a holistic spiritual substance, subordinated to a single will and mind."Psychic life, - said SLFrank - is not a machine or a set of individual mental phenomena whether processes.It is, on the contrary, a kind of primary indecomposable unity. "
According to the dualists, the human brain is not a self-regulating system and needs to be some intangible essence of activity, ensuring the unity of his work.It is thanks to those activities that essence our mind and our whole mental life is holistic.Professor of Psychology McDougall wrote in this regard: "The fact of the psychic personality ... .. can not be understood ....without postulating a basis of unity, which is not a material body or brain. "English neuroscientist Charles Sherrington in his articles claimed that some "mental principle", which lies outside us, activates mechanisms of the brain.Head of the Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania Eisley believes that "a spiritual factor should lead the development of the brain."Naturally, based on similar allegations of scientific luminaries, it is possible the existence of superphysical theoretical justification of the soul, without which the person is not a complete thought.At least, a number of scientists, willingly or unwillingly, have come to that conclusion.Australian researcher in the field of neurophysiology Kyubi explicitly states the existence of non-material spirit of ensuring the functioning of the consciousness and thinking.Known in his time scientist vitalist, Professor Driesch, said that "the essential agents responsible for the formation of the body - this is not the agents acting in the space and having the starting point in the particles of matter, it's agents, acting in space, if allowed to be consumedThis paradoxical expression. "And if these self-sufficient "agents" are formally outside of our natural surroundings, in the case of death, they also have to go into outer space, which is actually a proof of the immortality of the spirit.Professor McDougall also talks about some spiritual structure that does not have spatial characteristics, but, nevertheless, has an influence on matter.
Supporters of the concept of "immateriality of consciousness" physiologists ask: "How do show us, consciousness can be generated by the brain as gall, for example, the liver?" In their view, it is inappropriate to call a property of the brain consciousness.In the material world every object has properties: color, smell, shape.Meanwhile, our thoughts have no color, no shape, no smell.Thought can not touch, can not feel their weight or smell.The very thought, according A.Menya, "it is impossible if they wanted to take up" or register the content using any device.For example, using EEG power can register the oscillations produced by the brain.However, using it is impossible to discern "the flash of consciousness."Electrical discharges caused by the activity of the brain, is a physiological process, and mental movement is a process of a different nature.Thus, no modern super-power devices capable to penetrate even into the invisible world of molecules, it is impossible to "catch" the idea, to see the process of its inception, to describe the structure of thought.On the impossibility of knowledge of our thinking with the help of natural methods of saying the American neurophysiologist P. Bailey, who claimed at the time that "we have no right to explore the psyche with the help of physiology."This opinion is shared another neuroscientist Charles Sherrington.English scientist Kyubi believed that consciousness is an abstraction, and can not be the object of scientific research. "