India is a country with an extremely interesting and ancient culture.In modern Indian society the impact of the former culture still palpable.The highest stratum of society in India has long been considered the Brahmins, or as they are called, the Brahmins.Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras - who are they?What weight in society is one or the other of Varna?Who are the Brahmins?Consider these questions in more detail.
Indians tell the legend that explains the appearance of the four varna (estates).According to the story, he divided the people into classes god Brahma, protoplast dismembering Purusha.Purusha's mouth turned into a Brahmin, his hands - in the Kshatriyas, hip - Vaishya, and legs - Sudra.Since then, the Indians stubbornly divided people into castes, which largely determine the fate of every citizen of this country.
Separation castes in ancient times and their impact on society in modern
caste, or certain segments of society, still have a huge impact on the people of India, despite the fact that in 1950 the law on the division of the inhabitants of them werecanceled.The manifestation of old laws are still there - and it shows when meeting two people who belong to the same caste.About reckoning to a particular segment of society shows not only the behavior of the Indians, but also their names.For example, the name of Gandhi, of course, belongs to the man from the trading castes in Gujarat, and the Brahmin - it is Gupta, Dikshit, Bhattacharya.
Kshatriyas - warrior class
addition Brahmins, Indian society is divided into 3 classes - there are Kshatriyas, and Sudras vaisyas.Kshatriyas - the second on the status of the caste after the Brahmins, which includes soldiers, defenders of the state.The name of this caste means "power", so there is nothing surprising in the fact that it belonged to her many Indian rulers.Kshatriyas can boast of having special rights - they say goodbye to such displays of emotion like anger, passion, and so on. E., They can punish and pardon.Law for them above all else.Also from this caste make excellent soldiers, officials, and even control the estates.It has long been Brahmins advisors Kshatriya - this cooperation is mutually beneficial, because the problem was that the Brahmins, to work wisely, and Kshatriyas had to act.The philosophy of Hinduism considers other castes, less status.
Vaishya - artisans and merchants
Vaishya - representatives of the third caste status (according to one version, the word translated as "dependent" on the other - the "people").It is considered the most numerous, as it related to her artisans, merchants, moneylenders.However, in recent years it is considered varna traders, because even in ancient times, many Christians have lost their land, starting perceived as Sudras - the fourth varna, the lowest status (not counting the Untouchables - a special caste Indians).
Sudras: the servants and laborers
Sudras - the people who are subordinate.If the highest varna considered as representatives of God Brahmins, Sudras occupied the lowest rung, and their duty is to serve the three higher Varna.Once they are divided into pure (Brahman can make a meal out of their hands) and unclean.It is believed that the caste has developed later than the others, and it consisted of people who lost their land, as well as slaves and tenants.Nowadays Sudras can be called almost the entire population of India.There is also the untouchables, who, in fact, do not belong to any varna.It includes fishermen, prostitutes, butchers, street artists and itinerant craftsmen.Private Jada Untouchables all unique - it includes transvestites, eunuchs, and so on. D. The Untouchables almost completely isolated from Indians belonging to other castes - they do not have the right not only to talk to them, but also to touch their clothes.They are also prohibited from attending public institutions and to drive in traffic.And finally, let's talk about Brahman, which, unlike the Untouchables are considered the most respected caste in India and enjoy special privileges.
Brahman - is representative of the highest caste in India, the European analogue of a spiritual mentor.These people are members of a higher caste.In ancient times, in the hands of the Brahmins has concentrated all power.They were priests, kings counselors, custodians of ancient manuscripts, teachers and scientists.Among Brahmins also met the monks and judges.Previously, their task is the education of children and the division of varna - for this teacher to analyze the behavior of the child.Nowadays Varna is passed, usually by inheritance, that is not quite correct, because each caste has individual character traits, as evidenced by the god in Hinduism.For example, the task of the Brahmins - a creation and liberation.Classic Brahmin does not think of worldly problems, he is immersed in something deeper and more real.Kshatriyas believe that the main thing for them - the execution of duty, for vaisyas - enrichment for the Sudras - carnal pleasures.
Referring to the dictionary
word "brahmin" is translated from the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit means "spirit", symbolizing the impersonal supreme being, who is a stranger, and not interested in worldly affairs.Also, this word means prayer.
According to another interpretation, the Brahmins are called sacred books, which are commentaries to the Vedas (the so-called the collection of the oldest scriptures in Sanskrit).
Brahman - a philosopher, has long been revered priest, and even the governor.These Indians were associated with higher beings closest to the religion, and hence to God.Nonetheless, Hinduism is not experiencing the best of times, as the number of Hindus, according to statistics, there are less than the Christians and Muslims.Currently, however, many Brahmins in India are fully developed human beings, does not cease to learn and grow intellectually.They try to maintain their status, preserving the ancient tradition.But is all rosy as it sounds, really?Let us consider a smooth transition from the Brahmins of antiquity to the present.
Brahman - who is this?History and modernity
Brahmans - is the Magi (in Russian).Previously Brahmans worshiped even more than the rulers, because they can be called spiritual leaders to guide people on the path of religion.In our time, they are also respected, despite the fact that not all people who have a similar status to live according to the laws.In fact, the rite in our time can pass any and become a Brahmin, but it is also important to follow these vows during the event.
In our time to Brahmanism, by and large, come a few, because these people are more spiritual, not physical incarnation man.
In modern India, many people of this caste are the ruling classes and the intelligentsia class.However, sometimes the need to break the ancient Brahmins make foundations - choose to work as servants or small employees.Also among the Brahmins found peasants.A separate group (Jada) Brahmins lives only through alms tourists.
People born in the Brahmin caste, have a number of constraints imposed on their status.
- Brahman can not take food out of the hands of other castes, because they are considered lower class.This Brahmin he can share with anyone food.
- Brahman can not engage in manual labor, so his work is spiritual or intellectual.
- marriage between a Brahmin and a representative of another caste is impossible.However, the Brahmin has the right to choose a soul mate from another community of Brahmins.
- Some Brahmins do not eat meat.
Foreigners joke that many Indian programmers are Brahmins.
«particles» atman is brahman.This is the essence of an individual, subjective mental start.Atman and Brahman - is different, but inseparable things.The Indians believe that every person has a profound essence, that is able to open the way to happiness.While Brahmin is something more than the unknown, that which is above human understanding and awareness of, the atman is hidden in every person, every external manifestation is guided by it.
Hindu philosophy, despite the fact that India is not so much its supporters, still has a significant impact on the multi-layer system of separation of Varna.In fact, even when the Indian king Ashoka embraced Buddhism as the state religion, the system remained the same, indicating that its incredible resistance of the big changes.
In Hindu philosophy there are several entities god
- God is perceived as impersonal brahman essence.Having reached it, one attains blissful state, which can be called (in Buddhism) nirvana.
- Paratigma is ubiquitous manifestation of God, which is in every part of the material world.
- Bhagavan - the Supreme Personality of God, manifested in various forms - Cherry, Krishna, and so on. D.
Moreover, the different currents of Hinduism perceive religion in different ways, so God in Hinduism does not have a uniform appearance.
Conclusion In this article, we discussed the concept of "Brahmin" and considered other castes, which for centuries divided the population of India.