"ZIL 157" (photo of the car are presented on the page), a powerful truck, which was issued in the Soviet times the factory Likhachev, from 1958 to 1991.The machine has the characteristics of all-wheel drive all-terrain vehicle, and therefore the serial production was aimed at ensuring the vehicles of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union.At the same time a certain amount of "ZIL 157" was used in the national economy.
In 1961, the model was modified and received index "ZIL 157K."The new version of the car was produced until 1978, then its production was moved to the Ural Automobile Plant (UAMZ), but under the name "ZIL 157KD."The new machine is different from the previous improved transmission, reliable single disc clutch, well-balanced axle load distribution with a uniform and telescopic shock absorbers.Road performance of the modified model also improved the speed increased from 60 to 65 kilometers per hour.The updated version has been available for some time to get acquainted, "Zil 157" photos that were not published anywhere, was classified as any military equipment of the time.
body of the car was a wooden platform covered with longitudinal metal edges which protect against abrasion.The boards were assembled from wooden plates with a thickness of 20 millimeters and a width of 80.For the strength of the longitudinal design of intensified cross bars with metal brackets.The headboard was attached fixedly and the side and rear reclined, thereby fully opening the platform body.Thus, the loading and unloading of military and any other property held easily and quickly.
from the army in the national economy
car "ZIL 157KD" was produced until 1991, with the performance of the car has not changed, all the technical parameters fully meet the requirements of operation.And as in 1966, the factory started production Likhachev Army all-terrain vehicle "ZIL 131", the supply of "ZIL 157KD" in the Armed Forces of the USSR partially stopped.The car is increasingly used in civil construction, collective and state farms and forestry.Reliable, unpretentious terrain vehicle has become an indispensable tool in various fields.
Model "ZIL 157B" tractor without a body, was especially convenient transportation in logging.Powerful traction characteristics allowed to use the machine for carrying long logs.
parameters of the basic units and units "ZIL 157" meets the highest requirements of the time.Since the machine was produced for the Soviet Army, for its production did not spare funds.Thus, "Zil 157", the characteristics of which do not need to be improved, collected on a conveyor belt in a classic case for years without changing technology.
car was equipped with an engine and transmission average power with five drive shafts, one of which connects the dispensing unit with the gearbox, two handed rotation of the front and middle axles.The fourth and fifth combined average transmission shafts to the rear axle via an intermediate bearing assembly.
Tires Wheels "ZIL 157" had a deep tread directional, virtually eliminates slippage.For the first time in the domestic automotive industry in the truck pumping system was installed to regulate the pressure in the tires.Punctures and small holes in the wheels do not affect the running of the machine, the compressor is automatically pumped the required amount of air to compensate for a lack of pressure.From the driver's seat could also include a mechanism for paging.
Tires "ZIL 157", among others, were designed for movement on virgin snow or swampy areas.To do this it was necessary to reduce the pressure to 0.7 atmospheres.Wheels settled, their surface becomes wider.After passing the difficult part, tires pumped back to normal pressure of 2.8 atmospheres.
cylinder block "Zil 157" with "jacket" closed.By circulating the coolant circuit.The radiator was a tubular structure fitted with vertical blinds.Six-bladed impeller fan provides additional cooling.
By design flaws of the cooling system of the car "ZIL 157" can be attributed to the sensitivity of the engine low temperature.At minus 10 degrees have to use special for insulating covers for the engine compartment, because the cooling system does not maintain the desired temperature.Subsequently, the thermostat has been finalized, but the housings are still included in the packaging machine.
Engine "ZIL 157"
- cylinder capacity - 5559 cm / 3;
- type - gasoline, carburetor;
- maximum power - 109 hp .;
- number of cylinders - 6, in-line arrangement;
- Bore - 101.6 mm;
- compression ratio - 6.2;
- cooling - antifreeze;
- material - iron cylinder block, aluminum cylinder head;
- mode - four;
- Firing order 1-5-3-6-2-4;
- fuel A-66, A-72.
Transmission Manual transmission, a five-speed:
- model 151;
- switch - floor lever.
- fifth gear (straight) - 0.81;
- fourth gear - 1.00;
- third gear - 1.89;
- second gear - 3.32;
- first gear - 6.24;
- reverse - 6.70.
distributing box, two-stage:
- first gear - 2.44;
- second gear - 1.24;
- main transmission drive axles - single, 6.67.
Overall and weight characteristics
- full weight of 10 190 kg;
- length of 6684 mm;
- height: complete with awning 2915 mm, without tent 2 360 mm;
- width of 2315 mm;
- front track 1755 mm;
- rear track 1750 mm;
- wheel base of 3665 + 1 120 mm;
- ground clearance (clearance) - 310 mm.
During the production of "ZIL 157" was created by eleven basic modifications that perform certain tasks.In addition, there were special purpose vehicles:
- fire truck with a tank of water with a capacity of 4.5 tons, a retractable staircase and a double cabin for personnel;
- car with emergency generating set to supply electricity to temporarily de-energized objects.
- with reinforced front bumper for towing by pushing;
- cars equipped with a winch designed for pulling out jammed wheeled and tracked vehicles;
- base model "ZIL 157", edition 1958;
- tractor "157B";
- base model since 1961, "157K";
- tractor from 1961, "157KV";
- base model since 1978, "157KD";
- tractor from 1978, "157KDV";
- tropical version with enhanced cooling system and radiator surround, "157YU";
- export model "157E";
- model with protected equipment, shielded - "157G";
- model with shielded, protected equipment since 1961 - "157KG";
- specialized model with dual fuel tanks with a total volume of 300 liters - "ZIL 157E".
There were produced 797 934 vehicles of all modifications of the "King of off-road" as popularly called "ZIL 157".
base model 1978 "157KD" equipped with engines, unified with the motor car "ZIL 130".The compression ratio has been increased from 6.2 to 6.5.Piston group - cylinder liners, pistons, set compression rings, fingers connecting rod completely borrowed from the engine "130".Lubrication system drastically changed, now the oil is purified in a centrifugal filter.
power the water pump has been significantly improved, installed a brand new alternator, compact, efficient unit.Staff starter replaced by vysokooborotisty, increased power.Normal timer gave way to the contact-transistor ignition system.The updated engine was mounted on the "ZIL 157KD" in the Urals branch of the ZIL.
"ZIL 157" diesel
During the production of all-terrain vehicle, diesel power plants, which would be issued on an industrial scale did not exist.Therefore, in the USSR, all trucks were equipped with petrol engines only.However, on the "ZIL 157" in principle you can install a diesel engine the brand D245-12S, it does not need to alter anything, all fasteners docking engine and gearbox predach easily adapted.It is only necessary to cut back staff support and weld brackets on the "ZIL 130" or "ZIL 131".However, when installing a diesel engine must be prepared for tangible shaking the entire machine is the only negative of such modernization.
car "ZIL 157", regardless of the modifications, equipped with three units of the same type of moves.This planetary, semiaxial bridges, with differentials.Ratios gears are identical for all three beams.Mounting brackets are designed to elliptical springs, although the suspension can be a pendulum with springs and hydraulic shock absorbers.
Enough tough operating conditions, "Zil 157", bridges that are experiencing the brunt, forced designers to look for solutions, suspensions povyshayushie reliable car.It was a scheme, it is simple and reliable, which included the installation of hydraulic shock absorbers.
All semi-axis of the car dock with iron drums, which are part of the braking system is sufficient "157".Pads of universal material "feredo" worked flawlessly.The car is almost never left tread marks on the road, stop was smoothly and without jerks, which are usually accompanied by inhibition of heavy vehicles.
Despite the simplicity of the design and the high life, "the king of off-road" sometimes breaks.However, the current owners of all-terrain vehicle not worry, spare parts "ZIL 157" is on sale in sufficient quantity.In the Soviet period, in parallel with the production of vehicles, especially trucks, working plants for the production of repair kits.And, as a rule, spare parts produced in large quantities far exceeding demand.It was the cost of the planned economy, but because of them today you can buy almost everything you need to repair the car.