Jean-Étienne Liotard, "Chocolate"

Swiss painter Jean-Étienne Liotard, "Chocolate," which is the pearl of the meeting of the Dresden Art Gallery, for his long and happy life (1702-1789) created about 400 works."Holbein pastel" (so named Lyotard colleagues, thus recognizing his undoubted talent) did not write a bad job, but it became a masterpiece of world painting is called at the beginning of the article web.

photographic image accuracy

What does "Holbein pastels?"The works of the greatest German artist Hans Holbein the Younger is famous portrait likeness and jewelery output of the drawing.But he painted in oils, pastels and glorified Lyotard."Chocolate" - the most famous painting, executed in this manner.All the paintings of Swiss artist different photographic accuracy, the smallest output of each detail.One of the critics Lyotard compared with the ancient Greek artist Zeuxis known fact that in order to prove their superiority over Parraziem master of realism, painted a grape, which immediately flew the birds to peck it.

Perfect and fragile

same virtuoso and was Lyotard."Chocolate" is, according to this critic (M. Alpatov), ​​those masterpieces, in which there is a wonderful optical illusion.This work is written very much, including because it is done in a manner that is much rarer than watercolor, engraving, and especially oil painting.Artists pastels rarely resorted to because of its fragility and susceptibility to fracture at the smallest wrong move, because the binders in the source material - the paste (which is why "pastel") - was added very little.From timeless and fresh paint on the canvases executed in this manner (materials added to oil paints darken).A pastel works crumble and disintegrate during transport.Over time, the authors of the pictures have come to the conclusion that they are best stored under glass, resting on the mat - cardboard edging fabric on which the work is done.In this case, the glass does not touch the drawing.But these fragile works are distinguished by mesmerizing glow, velvety softness and specific.

Free, imposing, mysterious ...

In this manner, and some wrote Lyotard."Chocolate" - the most famous and the best, according to many experts, works made with pastels, although the artist himself does not set it apart from all previously created.The talented and lucky, he was known as a master risuyuschim reigning persons and beauties.Jean Etienne was secured and could afford to do only favorite things - painting and travel.Lyotard was absolutely free in life, despite the presence of five children, and in the works.He was extravagant and mysterious, it was patronized by the royal houses of Europe.

mysterious model

According to one version, a beautiful girl, shown in the picture - Anna Baldauf, the daughter of an impoverished knight.Noble origin allows it to be a maid in the court of the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.There she saw the beauty and grace of the artist.According to another, more romantic version, the prince of Dietrichstein, visiting Vienna coffee house, was captivated by the beauty of a waitress at a glance.He married her against the wishes of the family and the wedding gave his Cinderella her portrait in the costume in which Anna saw the first time.The gift was the tsar, as Lyotard was a court painter, and his works were very expensive.There are other versions of the model to pose.

Charming simplicity

Picture captivating, she bewitches, despite the fact that the story it more than easy.After elaborate paintings, say, the same Watteau, which portrayed flirty ladies and gentlemen, the lonely figure of a girl carrying a tray of hot chocolate along the white wall, looked surprisingly simple, natural and charmingly.The canvas size of 82.5 x 52.5 on parchment pastel, which was a master painter Liotard."Chocolate," written in the Rococo style, striking filigree precision items - an apron girl just got out of the chest, it is visible to the slightest wrinkle, giver of chocolate itself seems to breathe and smell the chocolate.

Visual aids in physics

In Shokoladnitsa charming all - little legs, back straight, but not tense, not the girl emaciated thinness, but slender.Great discharged suit wonderfully chosen color.And yet we must remember that only the white background is a wall - no you bust or tubs with flowers.But the special delight of connoisseurs of art since the advent of the pictures and to this day is a Chinese lacquered tray in the hands of the girl, which is a glass of water and a cup of chocolate.The painting is valuable by the fact that it was first captured the famous Meissen porcelain having his long and remarkable history.But a glass of Bohemian glass filled with water discharged so that, according to experts, clearly demonstrates the refraction of light at the interface of two transparent media (Snell's law).This is one of the best praise that deserves JE Lyotard."Chocolate" is not considered to be a portrait and genre scenes.

oldest brand US

Since writing the fate of favors for this product - it's very reprinted and incredibly popular, including in our day.This can not boast of any work of the XVIII century.What was going on?Since 1765 painting is an art gallery in Dresden, and after 120 years it saw when visiting the famous museum of the owner of the oldest American company Bakers Chocolate, which is engaged in the production of this product.Henry L. Pierce was fascinated by the fact that drew Jean Lyotard."Chocolate" is becoming the trademark of the company.La Belle Chocolatiere («Lovely Chocolate") - logo, approved two years, went down in history as the first and oldest trademark in the US and one of the oldest in the world.

wide and nobody surpassed gesture

USSR In the Soviet Union this pattern became especially popular when in 1955 the Dresden Gallery will Khrushchev returning paintings produced in the country as the spoils of war.

Most of the best restored Soviet masters before sending masterpieces exhibited from 2 May to 20 August, and people from all over the vast country in a hurry to say goodbye to the pictures, among them the famous painting which created the Jean-Étienne Liotard - "Chocolate".