In 1741, an expedition led by Commander Vitus Bering, were discovered Commander Islands.For a long time they were uninhabited.The first settlers began creoles and Aleuts, who began to explore the island in 1825.Today the village of Nikolskoye on Bering Island - Aleut village, the only one in the Russian Federation.
From history Reserve
In tsarist times the Commander Islands were suppliers of furs for the imperial treasury.Uncontrolled demand for animals has led to the mass destruction of seals, which greatly reduced their numbers.At the end of the XIX century, work began on the Protection rookeries were first introduced restrictions on the production of fur seals and sea otters.Control of fishing was approved in 1911.
significantly improved the situation in the Soviet times.In 1958 he was banned from fishing in thirty miles around the islands.The first reserve of regional importance came to this land in 1980.
title "Commander National Park" and the federal status he received in April 1993.In 2002 he received the status of "biosphere", which is under UNESCO protection.
Commander Reserve is located in the North Pacific.Its territory is bounded on the south of the Bering Sea.Commander Islands - it is the western extremity of the island of the Aleutian arc.They are the pinnacle of submarine ridges and consist of 15 islands of different sizes.
Kamchatka, Commander Islands
are mainly freestanding small cliff.The largest of them - the Bering Island.Its highest point - is Mount Steller, whose height is 755 meters.Also it is necessary to allocate the picturesque island of Copper.It is a flat and low island.
Komandorskii-Aleutian arc consists of volcanic rock.On these islands of volcanic activity have been recorded, and earthquakes occur frequently.This minor tremors (rarely reach 5-6).
Reserve "Commander": description
He is the Commander archipelago.This Aleutian District (Kamchatka Krai).It includes and coastal waters of the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean.The total area of the reserve - 3,648,679 hectares.This territory includes 3,463,300 hectares of sea area and 185 379 ha of land.
Reserve in the south of Bering Island.In addition, it takes Arius Stone Island and Copper Island, which are arranged in a compact group to the east of Kamchatka.
Commander Reserve is divided into sections that are protected in varying degrees:
- protected core, where human activity is banned and its intervention in natural processes;
- buffer zones, which allowed limited fishing and partial economic activity.
Commander Islands are neledovitoy southern part of the Bering Sea.It is quite cool summers and relatively mild winters.Almost every month there are days when the wind blows on the islands with great speed - more than 108 kilometers per hour.
Goals and objectives of the reserve
the Commander reserve assigned specific tasks:
- protection of natural areas and marine waters, adjacent to preserve the natural state of natural objects;
- research, conducting the annals of nature;
- environmental monitoring, and environmental education;
- introduction Biosphere Reserve environmental practices, which do not destroy the environment and does not deplete biological resources;
- promote the protection of historical, cultural and ethnic heritage.
biological diversity of marine life, the waters of antifreeze in the winter feeding area is the site of a large number of water birds, the presence of endangered, rare and endemic species of birds and mammals.Kamchatka region has no equivalent in value to the reserve.
flora and fauna of the region includes 383 species of vascular plants and 158 - algae.Through the Commander Islands, the eastern boundary of the area where common 93 species of rare plants.There are no forests.At any point the Commander dominated tundra.Only occasionally can be found here shrub thickets of mountain ash and willow.Under them grow Swedish dogwood, luazeleriya recumbent, black crowberry, fillodotse Aleutian and blue.
Herbs in the reserve represented anemone raznotsvetkovoy, coil viviparous, goldthread three-sheeted, horsetail wintering.Windswept raznotsvetkovaya often suffers because of its beauty.These unusual flowers are often terminated, making bouquets, despite the fact that the plant is poisonous.
There are also other shrubs: Siberian juniper, honeysuckle and wild rose tupoushkovy edible.
Meadows grow sedge dlinnoostistaya, Dactylorhiza spinous, horsetail, pushistotsvetkovaya geranium, iris bristly, hair grass tortuous.
Commander Reserve has a great diversity of animals.There were registered 25 species of mammals, 25 - fish, 213 - birds.Terrestrial mammals, there are six kinds.It is the American mink, blue fox of Copper, gray rat, red-backed vole, house mouse, reindeer.All of them inhabit the Bering Island.
especially protected nature reserve is famous for large rookeries of marine animals, sea lions and northern sea lions.These animals pose together rookery - thousands of clusters on shore.
Seals belong to the species of eared seals.It is the most numerous marine species, which glorified the reserve in the world.Northern sea lion (Steller sea lions) are few in Komandorskii reserve.Spotted seals - seals is quite rare for the islands of the animals.They live on the coastal reefs and cliffs of the island.This marine animal of extraordinary beauty and grace with variegated color.
Anthurium - so-called island of seals belonging to the group of seals.Sometimes the animal is called a "seal-flower" because of the unusual color of the skin: on a brown or dark gray background scattered large yellow and white spots in the form of rings.Anthurium - rare animals, so they are under state protection.
Kamchatka (Russia), mainly inhabited by marine life.This Commander's beaked whale, humpback whale, blue whale and other northern.
Komandorskii The Reserve protects the endemic population of blue fox (polar fox).The life of these animals is full of dangers and desperate struggle.Approximately 40% of the puppies blue foxes killed.Some of them break the rocks, they kill other larger predators.
Reserve Commander - a place of nesting sea birds and waterfowl, as well as stop waterfowl and waders during migration.Falcon nest on the islands, serokrylaya gull, peregrine falcon, red-Clitocybe.
constantly nest here about a million birds representatives of nineteen species.Most are fulmars, common murre, common guillemots, puffins.Fulmars named so for credulity: they are not afraid of humans.A hatchets, or dead ends, so called because of the peculiar shape of the beak, which is very similar to a hatchet.They have the second name - sea parrots.During the mating period, the already bright color of these birds is even more amazing.
in search of food, these birds can dive to great depths (up to 10 m).They stay underwater for up to two minutes, the fish, thus already caught not released.They can simultaneously hold in its beak up to 12 fishes.
Today, a huge number of our fellow citizens and visitors from abroad come to the Commander Reserve to admire the extraordinary nature of these places.The reserve is organized hiking trails, that help to appreciate the diversity of flora and fauna.Routes run on Bering Island and Copper familiar with the birds and the islands Toporkov Ary Kamen.
In addition, you can see the historic sites that tell the history of our country.In November 1741 the packet-boat "Saint Peter", which was led by Commander Vitus Bering, was thrown out on the coastal reefs during a severe storm.
Islands, which were later named the Commander, became part of Russia, as well as Alaska and all the other islands of the Aleutian arc.And the same desert island, named Bering Island, was the last refuge for the great commander and his faithful companions.
In 1867, Alaska and the Aleutian Islands were sold to the United States, and only inaccuracy in the indication of geographical data in the contract, considered the island has retained for Russia.
After archaeological excavations (1922), was discovered by the famous expedition camp and burial.It was held reburial of the team and of the Commander Bering.Since then, the bay Commander has become very attractive for tourists who want to worship the fearless Russian researchers the second Kamchatka expedition.
Despite the harsh climate to visit the Commander Islands every year becomes more and more.The most favorable months to visit these places are July, August and September.Today the reserve has developed several interesting routes.In addition, you can get a pass to visit the rookeries of marine mammals.Here you will see a huge number of animals and be able to make a great photo.
Before the Commander Islands can be reached by plane, helicopter or by sea.From Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to Bering Island you have to overcome 735 km.Marine Reserve Commander tours organized constantly.
As a rule, tourists are accommodated for the night in the village of Nikolskoye.Often the organizers of water tours offer accommodation in comfortable cabins of ships.